37 research outputs found

    Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Microbiome and Insulin Longitudinal Evaluation Study ( MILES

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    AIM: To investigate the role of the gut microbiome in regulating key insulin homeostasis traits (insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and insulin clearance) whose dysfunction leads to type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Microbiome and Insulin Longitudinal Evaluation Study (MILES) focuses on African American and non-Hispanic white participants aged 40–80 years without diabetes. Three study visits are planned (at baseline, 15 and 30 months). Baseline measurements include assessment of the stool microbiome and administration of an oral glucose tolerance test, which will yield indexes of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and insulin clearance. The gut microbiome profile (composition and function) will be determined using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing along with analyses of plasma short chain fatty acids. Additional data collected include dietary history, sociodemographic factors, health habits, anthropometry, medical history, medications and family history. Most assessments are repeated 15 and 30 months following baseline. RESULTS: After screening 875 individuals, 129 African American and 224 non-Hispanic white participants were enrolled. At baseline, African American participants have higher blood pressure, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences but similar waist-hip ratio compared with the non-Hispanic white participants. On average, African American participants are less insulin-sensitive and have higher acute insulin secretion and lower insulin clearance. CONCLUSIONS: The longitudinal design and robust characterization of potential mediators will allow for the assessment of glucose and insulin homeostasis and gut microbiota as they change over time, improving our ability to discern causal relationships between the microbiome and the insulin homeostasis traits whose deterioration determines T2D, setting the stage for future microbiome-directed therapies to prevent and treat T2D

    Screening, Prevention, Counseling, and Treatment for the Complications of Type II Diabetes Mellitus Putting Evidence into Practice

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    To summarize current knowledge of interventions that should improve the care of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Interventions lie within the realms of prevention, screening, and treatment, all of which are focused on office practice. METHODS: Review of the literature by a multidisciplinary team involved in the care of patients with diabetes, followed by synthesis of the literature into a clinical care guideline. Literature was identified through consultation with experts and a focused MEDLINE search. MAIN RESULTS: An algorithm-based guideline for screening and treatment of the complications of diabetes was developed. The emphasis is on prevention of atherosclerotic disease, and prevention, screening, and early treatment of microvascular disease. Implementation of these practices has the potential to significantly improve quality of life and increase life expectancy in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. KEY WORDS: diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent; guideline; prevention; complications; patient education.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/72059/1/j.1525-1497.1997.07111.x.pd
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