48 research outputs found

    Economic plans and the evolution of economic nationalism in Siam in the 1930s.

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    This thesis is concerned with the economic plans of Siam and the evolution of economic nationalism in Siam in the 1930s, but particularly the period from the overthrow of the absolute monarchy in June 1932. The opening chapter outlines the main themes of the thesis. Chapter 2 provides an outline of the main features of the Siamese economy In the 1920s and 1930s, and examines the main analyses by Thai and foreign scholars of the origins of Siamese economic underdevelopment. Chapter 3 is concerned with the economic plans of Mangkorn Samsen, Pridi and Phra Sarasas, while chapter 4 is concerned with a number of the less important economic plans introduced at that time. These plans were submitted by various groups, not only the Siamese elite but also the middle class. Chapter 5 examines more analytically all these plans, in the context of the evolution of economic nationalism in the inter-war decades. There are three views on the origin of economic nationalism in Siam: that it developed in the reign of Rama 6 (1910-1925), in the constitutional revolution in 1932, or as part of Phibun's nationalism in 1939. These views ignore the relationship between the three periods of economic nationalism. This study shows the continuity and discontinuity in economic nationalism between these periods. Chapter 5 further examines the role of the middle class. Chapter 6 considers the development of the co-operative movement in Siam from 1917, while chapter 7 focuses on the various plans and proposals in this period to establish a central bank. Chapter 8 is the conclusion

    Effect of Body Size and Sugar Meals on Oviposition of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    The effects of dietary sugar and body size on the oviposition of Ae. aegypti were studied under laboratory conditions. In female mosquitoes provided with sugar, the start of maximum fecundity was significantly delayed and the oviposition period was longer than in females provided with water. The peak of oviposition was also delayed in sugar-fed females. Large females oviposited more eggs per day than small females at maximum fecundity and during eight days of observations. Large females also visited significantly more water-containing cups in their cages per day than small females at maximum fecundity. During the eight days of observations, large females and sugar-fed females visited more watercontaining cups in their cages than water-fed small females. Both large females and sugar-fed females oviposited their eggs at sites higher above the water line than water-fed small females. These results suggested that large and sugar-fed female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes had more energy reserves and oviposited their eggs at higher sites, which would lead to a time lag in hatching

    Assessment of vitamin B6 status in Korean patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

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    The purpose of this study was to assess vitamin B6 intake and status in Korean patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Sixty-four patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 8-11% glycated hemoglobin (A1C), along with 28 age-matched non-diabetic subjects, participated. Dietary vitamin B6 intake was estimated by the 24 hour recall method and plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) was measured. There was a significant difference in daily total calorie intake between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups (1,917 ± 376 vs 2,093 ± 311 kcal). There were no differences in intake of total vitamin B6 (2.51 ± 0.91 vs 2.53 ± 0.81 mg/d) or vitamin B6/1,000 kcal (1.31 ± 0.42 vs 1.20 ± 0.32 mg) between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups, andI intakes of total vitamin B6 were above the Korean RDA in both groups (180.0 ± 57.9 vs 179.0 ± 65.4). There was a higher percentage of diabetic subjects whose plasma PLP concentration was < 30 nmol/L compared to non-diabetic group. Plasma PLP levels tended to be lower in the diabetic subjects than in the non-diabetic subjects, although the difference was not statistically significant due to a large standard deviation (80.0 ± 61.2 nmol/L vs 68.2 ± 38.5 nmol/L). Nevertheless, plasma PLP levels should be monitored in pre-diabetic patients with diabetic risk factors as well as in newly diagnosed diabetic patients for long-term management of diabetes, even though this factor is not a major risk factor that contributes to the development of degenerative complications in certain patients

    Glutaredoxin-1 up-regulation induces soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, attenuating post-ischemia limb revascularization

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    Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is a cytosolic enzyme that regulates diverse cellular function by removal of GSH adducts from S-glutathionylated proteins including signaling molecules and transcription factors. Glrx is up-regulated during inflammation and diabetes. Glrx overexpression inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration. The aim was to investigate the role of up-regulated Glrx in EC angiogenic capacities and in vivo revascularization in the setting of hind limb ischemia. Glrx overexpressing EC from Glrx transgenic mice (TG) showed impaired migration and network formation and secreted higher level of soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt), an antagonizing factor to VEGF. After hind limb ischemia surgery Glrx TG mice demonstrated impaired blood flow recovery, associated with lower capillary density and poorer limb motor function compared to wild type littermates. There were also higher levels of anti-angiogenic sFlt expression in the muscle and plasma of Glrx TG mice after surgery. Non-canonical Wnt5a is known to induce sFlt. Wnt5a was highly expressed in ischemic muscles and EC from Glrx TG mice, and exogenous Wnt5a induced sFlt expression and inhibited network formation in human microvascular EC. Adenoviral Glrx-induced sFlt in EC was inhibited by a competitive Wnt5a inhibitor. Furthermore, Glrx overexpression removed GSH adducts on p65 in ischemic muscle and EC, and enhanced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) activity which was responsible for Wnt5a-sFlt induction. Taken together, up-regulated Glrx induces sFlt in EC via NF-kB -dependent Wnt5a, resulting in attenuated revascularization in hind limb ischemia. The Glrx-induced sFlt may be a part of mechanism of redox regulated VEGF signaling

    Modulation of Wnt5a Expression by Periodontopathic Bacteria

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    Wingless proteins, termed Wnt, are involved in embryonic development, blood cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis. In mammalian hematopoiesis, Wnt signaling is essential for stem-cell homeostasis and lymphocyte differentiation. Recent studies have suggested that these molecules are associated with cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Furthermore, Wnt5a signaling is essential for the general inflammatory response of human macrophages. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria and the resultant host immune response. Periodontitis is characterized by loss of tooth-supporting structures and alveolar bone resorption. There have been no previous reports on Wnt5a expression in periodontitis tissue, and only few study reported the molecular mechanisms of Wnt5a expression in LPS-stimulated monocytic cells. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that Wnt5a mRNA expression was up-regulated in chronic periodontitis tissue as compared to healthy control tissue. P. gingivalis LPS induced Wnt5a mRNA in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 with a peak at 4 hrs after stimulation. P. gingivalis LPS induced higher up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA than E. coli LPS. The LPS receptors TLR2 and TLR4 were equally expressed on the surface of THP-1 cells. P. gingivalis LPS induced IκBα degradation and was able to increase the NF-κB binding activity to DNA. P. gingivalis LPS-induced Wnt5a expression was inhibited by NF-κB inhibitors, suggesting NF-κB involvement. Furthermore, IFN-γ synergistically enhanced the P. gingivalis LPS-induced production of Wnt5a. Pharmacological investigation and siRNA experiments showed that STAT1 was important for P. gingivalis LPS-induced Wnt5a expression. These results suggest that the modulation of Wnt5a expression by P. gingivalis may play an important role in the periodontal inflammatory process and serve a target for the development of new therapies