731 research outputs found

    Novel strategies for improving hematopoietic reconstruction after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or intensive chemotherapy.

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    peer reviewedINTRODUCTION: High-dose conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as well as intensive poly-chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induce prolonged periods of neutropenia. The duration of the neutropenia is particularly long following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). Areas covered: After briefly reviewing the impact of hematopoietic growth factors administration to hasten hematologic reconstitution after allo-HCT or intensive AML chemotherapy, this article summarizes recent approaches that have been investigated to prompt hematologic reconstruction after UCBT or intensive AML chemotherapy. Expert opinion: In the allo-HCT setting, administration of G-CSF or GM-CSF shortened the duration of the neutropenia but failed to decrease infection-related mortality or to improve survival. Novel approaches to hasten hematological reconstruction after UCBT such as double UCBT with expansion of one of the 2 UCB units with Notch ligand, mesenchymal stromal cells, nicotinamide, or StemRegenin 1, co-transplanting a single UCB unit with HLA-haploidentical CD34+ cells, or increasing UCB HSC homing to marrow niches via direct intra bone UCB administration, pulse treatment with dmPGE2 or enforced fucosylation are promising and deserve further investigations in prospective phase III studies. In the AML setting, G-CSF or GM-CSF administration after intensive chemotherapy decreased the duration of the neutropenia without improving survival

    Regulatory T Cells in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

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    Growing evidence suggests that cellular adoptive immunotherapy is becoming an attractive though challenging approach in regulating tumor immunity and alloresponses in clinical transplantation. Naturally arising CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) have emerged as a key component in this regard. Over the last decade, a large body of evidence from preclinical models has demonstrated their crucial role in auto- and tumor immunity and has opened the door to their “first-in-man” clinical application. Initial studies in clinical allogeneic stem cell transplantation are very encouraging and may pave the way for other applications. Further improvements in Treg ex vivo or in vivo expansion technologies will simplify their global clinical application. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of Treg biology and their potential for cell-based immunotherapy in allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    Novel Strategies for Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma: Previous Experience and Future Directions

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    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a life-threatening haematological malignancy for which standard therapy is inadequate. Autologous stem cell transplantation is a relatively effective treatment, but residual malignant sites may cause relapse. Allogeneic transplantation may result in durable responses due to antitumour immunity mediated by donor lymphocytes. However, morbidity and mortality related to graft-versus-host disease remain a challenge. Recent advances in understanding the interaction between the immune system of the patient and the malignant cells are influencing the design of clinically more efficient study protocols for MM. Cellular immunotherapy using specific antigen-presenting cells (APCs), to overcome aspects of immune incompetence in MM patients, has received great attention, and numerous clinical trials have evaluated the potential for dendritic cell (DC) vaccines as a novel immunotherapeutic approach. This paper will summarize the data investigating aspects of immunity concerning MM, immunotherapy for patients with MM, and strategies, on the way, to target the plasma cell more selectively. We also include the MM antigens and their specific antibodies that are of potential use for MM humoral immunotherapy, because they have demonstrated the most promising preclinical results

    NK Cell Receptor NKp46 Regulates Graft-versus-Host Disease

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    SummaryHematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is often the only curative treatment for a wide variety of hematologic malignancies. Donor selection in these diseases is crucial, given that transplanted cells can mediate not only the desired graft-versus-leukemia effect but also graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here, we demonstrate that in the absence of NKp46, a major killer receptor expressed by human and mouse natural killer (NK) cells, GVHD is greatly exacerbated, resulting in rapid mortality of the transplanted animals because of infection with commensal bacteria. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the exacerbated GVHD is the result of an altered ability of immune cells to respond to stimulation by immature dendritic cells. Because high and low expression of NKp46 on NK cells is observed in different individuals, our data indicate that choosing NKp46-high donors for the treatment of different hematologic malignancies might lead to better tumor eradication while minimizing GVHD

    Heparanase Promotes Engraftment and Prevents Graft versus Host Disease in Stem Cell Transplantation

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    Heparanase, endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, plays important roles in cancer metastasis, angiogenesis and inflammation.Applying a mouse model of bone marrow transplantation and transgenic mice over-expressing heparanase, we evaluated the effect of heparanase on the engraftment process and the development of graft-versus-host disease.Analysis of F1 mice undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from C57BL/6 mice demonstrated a better and faster engraftment in mice receiving cells from donors that were pretreated with heparanase. Moreover, heparanase treated recipient F1 mice showed only a mild appearance of graft-versus-host disease and died 27 days post transplantation while control mice rapidly developed signs of graft-versus-host disease (i.e., weight loss, hair loss, diarrhea) and died after 12 days, indicating a protective effect of heparanase against graft-versus-host disease. Similarly, we applied transgenic mice over-expressing heparanase in most tissues as the recipients of BMT from C57BL/6 mice. Monitoring clinical parameters of graft-versus-host disease, the transgenic mice showed 100% survival on day 40 post transplantation, compared to only 50% survival on day 14, in the control group. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that heparanase inhibited T cell function and activation through modulation of their cytokine repertoire, indicated by a marked increase in the levels of Interleukin-4, Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10, and a parallel decrease in Interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor-alfa and interferon-gamma. Using point mutated inactive enzyme, we found that the shift in cytokine profile was independent of heparanase enzymatic activity.Our results indicate a significant role of heparanase in bone marrow transplantation biology, facilitating engraftment and suppressing graft-versus-host disease, apparently through an effect on T cell activation and cytokine production pattern