704 research outputs found

    Monitoring the Formation of Nickel-Poor and Nickel-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Synchrotron Radiation

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    The syntheses of Ni-poor (NCM111, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2) and Ni-rich (NCM811 LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2) lithium transition-metal oxides (space group R3ŐÖm) from hydroxide precursors (Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3(OH)2, Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1(OH)2) are investigated using in situ synchrotron powder diffraction and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The development of the layered structure of these two cathode materials proceeds via two utterly different reaction mechanisms. While the synthesis of NCM811 involves a rock salt-type intermediate phase, NCM111 reveals a layered structure throughout the entire synthesis. Moreover, the necessity and the impact of a preannealing step and a high-temperature holding step are discussed

    Para-infectious brain injury in COVID-19 persists at follow-up despite attenuated cytokine and autoantibody responses

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    To understand neurological complications of COVID-19 better both acutely and for recovery, we measured markers of brain injury, inflammatory mediators, and autoantibodies in 203 hospitalised participants; 111 with acute sera (1‚Äď11 days post-admission) and 92 convalescent sera (56 with COVID-19-associated neurological diagnoses). Here we show that compared to 60 uninfected controls, tTau, GFAP, NfL, and UCH-L1 are increased with COVID-19 infection at acute timepoints and NfL and GFAP are significantly higher in participants with neurological complications. Inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-12p40, HGF, M-CSF, CCL2, and IL-1RA) are associated with both altered consciousness and markers of brain injury. Autoantibodies are more common in COVID-19 than controls and some (including against MYL7, UCH-L1, and GRIN3B) are more frequent with altered consciousness. Additionally, convalescent participants with neurological complications show elevated GFAP and NfL, unrelated to attenuated systemic inflammatory mediators and to autoantibody responses. Overall, neurological complications of COVID-19 are associated with evidence of neuroglial injury in both acute and late disease and these correlate with dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses acutely

    Global variations in diabetes mellitus based on fasting glucose and haemogloblin A1c

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    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are both used to diagnose diabetes, but may identify different people as having diabetes. We used data from 117 population-based studies and quantified, in different world regions, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, and whether those who were previously undiagnosed and detected as having diabetes in survey screening had elevated FPG, HbA1c, or both. We developed prediction equations for estimating the probability that a person without previously diagnosed diabetes, and at a specific level of FPG, had elevated HbA1c, and vice versa. The age-standardised proportion of diabetes that was previously undiagnosed, and detected in survey screening, ranged from 30% in the high-income western region to 66% in south Asia. Among those with screen-detected diabetes with either test, the agestandardised proportion who had elevated levels of both FPG and HbA1c was 29-39% across regions; the remainder had discordant elevation of FPG or HbA1c. In most low- and middle-income regions, isolated elevated HbA1c more common than isolated elevated FPG. In these regions, the use of FPG alone may delay diabetes diagnosis and underestimate diabetes prevalence. Our prediction equations help allocate finite resources for measuring HbA1c to reduce the global gap in diabetes diagnosis and surveillance.peer-reviewe

    Para-infectious brain injury in COVID-19 persists at follow-up despite attenuated cytokine and autoantibody responses

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    To understand neurological complications of COVID-19 better both acutely and for recovery, we measured markers of brain injury, inflammatory mediators, and autoantibodies in 203 hospitalised participants; 111 with acute sera (1‚Äď11 days post-admission) and 92 convalescent sera (56 with COVID-19-associated neurological diagnoses). Here we show that compared to 60 uninfected controls, tTau, GFAP, NfL, and UCH-L1 are increased with COVID-19 infection at acute timepoints and NfL and GFAP are significantly higher in participants with neurological complications. Inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-12p40, HGF, M-CSF, CCL2, and IL-1RA) are associated with both altered consciousness and markers of brain injury. Autoantibodies are more common in COVID-19 than controls and some (including against MYL7, UCH-L1, and GRIN3B) are more frequent with altered consciousness. Additionally, convalescent participants with neurological complications show elevated GFAP and NfL, unrelated to attenuated systemic inflammatory mediators and to autoantibody responses. Overall, neurological complications of COVID-19 are associated with evidence of neuroglial injury in both acute and late disease and these correlate with dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses acutely

    Clinicopathologic Factors and Their Association with Outcomes of Salivary Duct Carcinoma: A Multicenter Experience

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    Purpose: This series reports long-term clinical outcomes of patients with salivary duct carcinoma (SDC), which is associated with a poor prognosis. Methods and Materials: Eighty-nine patients with SDC were treated with curative intent from February 5, 1971, through September 15, 2018. Kaplan-Meier and competing risk analyses were used to estimate locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS). Cox regression analyses of disease and treatment characteristics were performed to discover predictors of locoregional control, DMFS, and OS. Results: Median follow-up was 44.1 months (range, 0.23-356.67). The median age at diagnosis was 66 years (interquartile range, 57-75). Curative surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy was performed in 73 patients (82%). Chemotherapy was delivered in 26 patients (29.2%). The 5-year local recurrence and distant metastasis rates were 27% and 44%, respectively, with death as a competing risk. Distant metastasis was associated with lymph node‚Äďpositive disease (hazard ratio [HR], 3.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-7.23; P¬†=¬†.006), stage IV disease (HR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.14-20.11; P¬†=¬†.033), perineural invasion (HR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.74-11.97; P¬†=¬†.002), and positive margins (HR, 9.06; 95% CI, 3.88-21.14; P < .001). Median OS was 4.84 years (95% CI, 3.54-7.02). The 5-year OS was 42%. Reduced OS was associated with lymphovascular space invasion (HR, 3.49; 95% CI, 1.2-10.1; P¬†=¬†.022), perineural invasion (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.06-3.97; P¬†=¬†.033), positive margins (HR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6; P¬†=¬†.011), N2 disease (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.03-3.43; P¬†=¬†.04), and N3 disease (HR, 11.76; 95% CI, 3.19-43.3; P < .001). Conclusions: In this single-institution, multicenter retrospective study, the 5-year survival was 42% in patients with SDC. Lymphovascular space invasion, lymph node involvement, and higher staging at diagnosis were associated with lower DMFS and OS

    Linking seed size and number to trait syndromes in trees

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    International audienceAim Our understanding of the mechanisms that maintain forest diversity under changing climate can benefit from knowledge about traits that are closely linked to fitness. We tested whether the link between traits and seed number and seed size is consistent with two hypotheses, termed the leaf economics spectrum and the plant size syndrome, or whether reproduction represents an independent dimension related to a seed size-seed number trade-off.Location Most of the data come from Europe, North and Central America and East Asia. A minority of the data come from South America, Africa and Australia.Time period 1960-2022.Major taxa studied Trees.Methods We gathered 12 million observations of the number of seeds produced in 784 tree species. We estimated the number of seeds produced by individual trees and scaled it up to the species level. Next, we used principal components analysis and generalized joint attribute modelling (GJAM) to map seed number and size on the tree traits spectrum.Results Incorporating seed size and number into trait analysis while controlling for environment and phylogeny with GJAM exposes relationships in trees that might otherwise remain hidden. Production of the large total biomass of seeds [product of seed number and seed size; hereafter, species seed productivity (SSP)] is associated with high leaf area, low foliar nitrogen, low specific leaf area (SLA) and dense wood. Production of high seed numbers is associated with small seeds produced by nutrient-demanding species with softwood, small leaves and high SLA. Trait covariation is consistent with opposing strategies: one fast-growing, early successional, with high dispersal, and the other slow-growing, stress-tolerant, that recruit in shaded conditions.Main conclusions Earth system models currently assume that reproductive allocation is indifferent among plant functional types. Easily measurable seed size is a strong predictor of the seed number and species seed productivity. The connection of SSP with the functional traits can form the first basis of improved fecundity prediction across global forests

    Masting is uncommon in trees that depend on mutualist dispersers in the context of global climate and fertility gradients

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    The benefits of masting (volatile, quasi-synchronous seed production at lagged intervals) include satiation of seed predators, but these benefits come with a cost to mutualist pollen and seed dispersers. If the evolution of masting represents a balance between these benefits and costs, we expect mast avoidance in species that are heavily reliant on mutualist dispersers. These effects play out in the context of variable climate and site fertility among species that vary widely in nutrient demand. Meta-analyses of published data have focused on variation at the population scale, thus omitting periodicity within trees and synchronicity between trees. From raw data on 12 million tree-years worldwide, we quantified three components of masting that have not previously been analysed together: (i) volatility, defined as the frequency-weighted year-to-year variation; (ii) periodicity, representing the lag between high-seed years; and (iii) synchronicity, indicating the tree-to-tree correlation. Results show that mast avoidance (low volatility and low synchronicity) by species dependent on mutualist dispersers explains more variation than any other effect. Nutrient-demanding species have low volatility, and species that are most common on nutrient-rich and warm/wet sites exhibit short periods. The prevalence of masting in cold/dry sites coincides with climatic conditions where dependence on vertebrate dispersers is less common than in the wet tropics. Mutualist dispersers neutralize the benefits of masting for predator satiation, further balancing the effects of climate, site fertility and nutrient demands

    Diminishing benefits of urban living for children and adolescents’ growth and development

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    Optimal growth and development in childhood and adolescence is crucial for lifelong health and well-being1‚Äď6. Here we used data from 2,325 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight from 71 million participants, to report the height and body-mass index (BMI) of children and adolescents aged 5‚Äď19 years on the basis of rural and urban place of residence in 200 countries and territories from 1990 to 2020. In 1990, children and adolescents residing in cities were taller than their rural counterparts in all but a few high-income countries. By 2020, the urban height advantage became smaller in most countries, and in many high-income western countries it reversed into a small urban-based disadvantage. The exception was for boys in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and in some countries in Oceania, south Asia and the region of central Asia, Middle East and north Africa. In these countries, successive cohorts of boys from rural places either did not gain height or possibly became shorter, and hence fell further behind their urban peers. The difference between the age-standardized mean BMI of children in urban and rural areas was <1.1 kg m‚Äď2 in the vast majority of countries. Within this small range, BMI increased slightly more in cities than in rural areas, except in south Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and some countries in central and eastern Europe. Our results show that in much of the world, the growth and developmental advantages of living in cities have diminished in the twenty-first century, whereas in much of sub-Saharan Africa they have amplified