6,939 research outputs found

    Acute effects of exercise intensity on butyrylcholinesterase and ghrelin in young men: A randomized controlled study

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    Background/objectives: Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a liver-derived enzyme that hydrolyzes acylated ghrelin to des-acylated ghrelin, may trigger a potential mechanism responsible for the acute exercise-induced suppression of acylated ghrelin. However, studies examining the effects of an acute bout of high-intensity exercise on BChE and acylated ghrelin have yielded inconsistent findings. This study aimed to examine the acute effects of exercise intensity on BChE, acylated ghrelin and des-acylated ghrelin concentrations in humans. Methods: Fifteen young men (aged 22.7 ± 1.8 years, mean ± standard deviation) completed three, half-day laboratory-based trials (i.e., high-intensity exercise, low-intensity exercise and control), in a random order. In the exercise trials, the participants ran for 60 min (from 09:30 to 10:30) at a speed eliciting 70 % (high-intensity) or 40 % (low-intensity) of their maximum oxygen uptake and then rested for 90 min. In the control trial, participants sat on a chair for the entire trial (from 09:30 to 12:00). Venous blood samples were collected at 09:30, 10:00, 10:30, 11:00, 11:30 and 12:00. Results: The BChE concentration was not altered over time among the three trials. Total acylated and des-acylated ghrelin area under the curve during the first 60 min (i.e., from 0 min to 60 min) of the main trial were lower in the high-intensity exercise trial than in the control (acylated ghrelin, mean difference: 62.6 pg/mL, p < 0.001; des-acylated ghrelin, mean difference: 31.4 pg/mL, p = 0.035) and the low-intensity exercise trial (acylated ghrelin, mean difference: 87.7 pg/mL, p < 0.001; des-acylated ghrelin, mean difference: 43.0 pg/mL, p = 0.042). Conclusion: The findings suggest that BChE may not be involved in the modulation of ghrelin even though lowered acylated ghrelin concentration was observed after high-intensity exercise

    Risk factors and management of intraprocedural rupture during coil embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: role of balloon guiding catheter

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    IntroductionIntraprocedural rupture (IPR) is a serious complication of endovascular coil embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Although outcomes after IPR are poor, methods to prevent subsequent neurological deterioration have not yet been investigated. We evaluated the risk factors and management strategies for IPR, particularly the role of balloon guiding catheters (BGCs) in rapid hemostasis.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed all UIA cases treated with coil embolization at three institutions between 2003 and 2021, focusing on preoperative radiological data, operative details, and outcomes.ResultsIn total, 2,172 aneurysms were treated in 2026 patients. Of these, 19 aneurysms in 19 patients (0.8%) ruptured during the procedure. Multivariate analysis revealed that aneurysms with a bleb (OR: 3.03, 95% CI: 1.21 to 7.57, p = 0.017), small neck size (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.85, p = 0.007), and aneurysms in the posterior communicating artery (PcomA) (OR: 4.92, 95% CI: 1.19 to 20.18, p = 0.027) and anterior communicating artery (AcomA) (OR: 12.08, 95% CI: 2.99 to 48.79, p &lt; 0.001) compared with the internal carotid artery without PcomA were significantly associated with IPR. The incidence of IPR was similar between the non-BGC and BGC groups (0.9% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.822); however, leveraging BGC was significantly associated with lower morbidity and mortality rates after IPR (0% vs. 44%, p = 0.033).DiscussionThe incidence of IPR was relatively low. A bleb, small aneurysm neck, and location on PcomA and AcomA are independent risk factors for IPR. The use of BGC may prevent fatal clinical deterioration and achieve better clinical outcomes in patients with IPR

    Supplementary Material for: Adrenocortical carcinoma with a renal vein thrombus extending to the inferior vena cava successfully resected with the left kidney and distal pancreatectomy: A case report

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    Introduction: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an extremely rare and aggressive tumor, and its clinical characteristics are poorly defined because of its rarity. Case presentation: We report a 64-year-old man who presented with upper abdominal pain and weight loss. Computed tomography revealed a 15 cm left adrenal tumor compressing the pancreas ventrally and a tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava (IVC) originating from the left renal vein. Positron emission tomography–computed tomography revealed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake only in the tumor and tumor thrombus, and radical surgery was planned. Intraoperatively, the tumor was visible on the posterior stomach wall, and the tumor adhered to the pancreas and left kidney. We excised the tumor with part of the pancreas and the left kidney and excised the thrombus from the IVC after clamping. The final diagnosis was ACC, tumor-node-metastasis grade T3N1M0, stage III. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy postoperatively; however, two liver metastases appeared 6 months after surgery. Chemotherapy was continued, and no exacerbation of the liver metastases was observed. Posterior segment resection of the liver was performed 16 months after the initial surgery. Conclusion: This report of a rare case of ACC involving the pancreas with tumor thrombus extension to the IVC stresses that this combination of conditions does not preclude radical surgery. However, more data are needed regarding chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as relapse treatment, and further research on ACC is essential for a favorable prognosis

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    Supplementary Material for: Phlegmonous colitis after cold snare polypectomy in an immunosuppressed patient: A case report

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    Introduction: Cold snare polypectomy (CSP) is a procedure with a low risk of complications. Here, we present our experience of a rare case of submucosal abscess following CSP in an immunosuppressed patient. Case presentation: 78-year-old man underwent CSP, developing a fever, chills, and right lower abdominal pain 8 days later. Ultrasound and computed tomography revealed wall thickening of the ascending colon, presenting as whitening and thickening of the same region, and excretion of pus was observed after biopsy. The diagnosis was made as phlegmonous colitis, for which antibiotic therapy was commenced. The patient was diagnosed with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) during admission. We considered the following reasons as possible causes of infectious complications after CSP: 1) the patient had a highly immunosuppressed state with comorbidities such as CMML as well as diabetes mellitus, and 2) disruption of the mucosal barrier occurred during endoscopic resection. Conclusion: Although CSP is generally considered safe, our case highlights the potential for serious complications in immunosuppressed patients. Therefore, the decision to perform CSP in such patients should be made with caution to avoid unnecessary interventions. In instances where treatment is essential, thorough bowel preparation and prophylactic antibiotic use may be necessary to mitigate the risks

    Energy Expenditure of Disaster Relief Operations Estimated Using a Tri-Axial Accelerometer and a Wearable Heart Rate Monitor

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    The management of nutrition, food, and health for disaster relief personnel is one of the crucial aspects for carrying out effective rescue activities during large-scale natural disasters, such as a big earthquake, flooding, and landslide following heavy rainfall or man-made disasters, such as widespread fire in industrial areas. Rescue workers, such as fire fighters and rescue teams who work on the disaster relief operations, have to work long, hard, and irregular hours that require energy (both intake and expenditure), with especially altered eating patterns. Reliable estimates of the energy expenditure (TEE) for such disaster relief operations have not been fully established. Here, we propose to clarify the energy expenditure for each type of large-scale disaster activity conducted by fire fighters. Thirty fire fighters (survey participants in this research) who participated in the simulation training of large-scale disaster activities wore tri-axial accelerometers and heart rate monitors during training; and, post-training, 28 fire fighters submitted complete activity record tables. An estimation formula combining tri-axial accelerometer and heart rate monitor data was used. Additionally, energy expenditure per hour (excluding resting energy expenditure: REE) (per average body weight of participants) was calculated for 10 types of large-scale disaster response activities. We propose utilization of these data as a reference value for examining the TEE of firefighting and rescue operations in future large-scale disasters

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    Long-term monitoring of sediment runoff for an active sediment control in Joganji River

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    There were huge sediment yielding and deposition due to debris flows by breaking natural landslide dams which were formed by earthquake in 1858 at upstream reach of Joganji River. Sediment transportation is still active by debris flow and flow with bedload due to rainfall, though a lot of erosion control dams have been constructed. Continuously measuring sediment runoff for long term along a main river is necessary to evaluate the propagation of sediment after the huge events for sediment management in the basin using well hydrological information. Appropriate tools are selected and applied to monitoring in the area managed by Tateyama Mountain Area Sabo Office along Joganji River, using a Reid-type bedload slot sampler, robust-type hydrophone and velocity meter on the bed for bedload and turbidity meter for washload. Monitored data is concentratedly collected at the office to apply risk management for sediment movement due to heavy rainfall and so on. Several typical data and problems to solved were shown because it passed around twenty years since sediment monitoring started, and those are reported in present study

    Effect of surface wettability on evaporation rate of droplet array

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    The evaporation of droplets in an array is hindered by adjacent droplets because of vapor-mediated interactions. Existing theoretical models for predicting the evaporation rate of droplets in the array neglect the important factor of surface wettability. In this work, we developed a model involving a contact angle function to accurately predict the evaporation rate of droplets with an arbitrary contact angle in the array. Fick\u27s first and second laws were solved for evaporating droplets in the array by using steady-state three-dimensional numerical simulations, to derive the contact angle function. The proposed model was experimentally validated for arrayed droplets evaporating on flat hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. We show that the contact angle function approaches unity on hydrophilic surfaces, which implies that the proposed model coincides with Wray et al.\u27s model. On the other hand, the contact angle function is much lower than unity on hydrophobic surfaces, indicating a low evaporation rate of droplets in the array. The findings of this study are expected to advance our understanding of droplet evaporation in arrays in a wide range of scientific and engineering applications

    Recurrent malignant peritoneal mesothelioma treated by a second resection: A case report

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    Key Clinical Message Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, a rare and poor prognosis disease, is seldom treated surgically, especially for recurrence. However, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of primary and recurrent tumors can achieve long‐term patient survival. Abstract Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive tumor, and rarely indicated for surgery, especially for recurrence. In the present case, we report a rare case who could survive long‐term after two surgeries in 4 years for MPM
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