776 research outputs found

    Linkage analysis merging replicate phenotypes: an application to three quantitative phenotypes in two African samples

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    We report two approaches for linkage analysis of data consisting of replicate phenotypes. The first approach is specifically designed for the unusual (in human data) replicate structure of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 pedigree data. The second approach consists of a standard linkage analysis that, although not specifically tailored to data consisting of replicate genotypes, was envisioned as providing a sounding board against which our novel approach could be assessed. Both approaches are applied to the analysis of three quantitative phenotypes (Q1, Q2, and Q4) in two sets of African families. All analyses were carried out blind to the generating model (i.e., the “answers”). Using both methods, we found numerous significant linkage signals for Q1, although population colocalization was absent for most of these signals. The linkage analysis of Q2 and Q4 failed to reveal any strong linkage signals

    Bayesian estimates of linkage disequilibrium

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    [Background] The maximum likelihood estimator of D' – a standard measure of linkage disequilibrium – is biased toward disequilibrium, and the bias is particularly evident in small samples and rare haplotypes. [Results] This paper proposes a Bayesian estimation of D' to address this problem. The reduction of the bias is achieved by using a prior distribution on the pair-wise associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)s that increases the likelihood of equilibrium with increasing physical distances between pairs of SNPs. We show how to compute the Bayesian estimate using a stochastic estimation based on MCMC methods, and also propose a numerical approximation to the Bayesian estimates that can be used to estimate patterns of LD in large datasets of SNPs. [Conclusion] Our Bayesian estimator of D' corrects the bias toward disequilibrium that affects the maximum likelihood estimator. A consequence of this feature is a more objective view about the extent of linkage disequilibrium in the human genome, and a more realistic number of tagging SNPs to fully exploit the power of genome wide association studies.Research supported by NIH/NHLBI grant R21 HL080463-01, NIH/NIDDK 1R01DK069646-01A1 and the Spanish research program [projects TIN2004-06204-C03-02 and TIN2005-02516]

    A systematic review and meta-synthesis of the impact of low back pain on people's lives

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    Copyright @ 2014 Froud et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.Background - Low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly problem that many interpret within a biopsychosocial model. There is renewed concern that core-sets of outcome measures do not capture what is important. To inform debate about the coverage of back pain outcome measure core-sets, and to suggest areas worthy of exploration within healthcare consultations, we have synthesised the qualitative literature on the impact of low back pain on people’s lives. Methods - Two reviewers searched CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, PEDro, and Medline, identifying qualitative studies of people’s experiences of non-specific LBP. Abstracted data were thematic coded and synthesised using a meta-ethnographic, and a meta-narrative approach. Results - We included 49 papers describing 42 studies. Patients are concerned with engagement in meaningful activities; but they also want to be believed and have their experiences and identity, as someone ‘doing battle’ with pain, validated. Patients seek diagnosis, treatment, and cure, but also reassurance of the absence of pathology. Some struggle to meet social expectations and obligations. When these are achieved, the credibility of their pain/disability claims can be jeopardised. Others withdraw, fearful of disapproval, or unable or unwilling to accommodate social demands. Patients generally seek to regain their pre-pain levels of health, and physical and emotional stability. After time, this can be perceived to become unrealistic and some adjust their expectations accordingly. Conclusions - The social component of the biopsychosocial model is not well represented in current core-sets of outcome measures. Clinicians should appreciate that the broader impact of low back pain includes social factors; this may be crucial to improving patients’ experiences of health care. Researchers should consider social factors to help develop a portfolio of more relevant outcome measures.Arthritis Research U

    Comparative chromosome painting discloses homologous Segments in distantly related mammals

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    Comparative chromosome painting, termed ZOO-FISH, using DNA libraries from flow sorted human chromosomes 1,16,17 and X, and mouse chromosome 11 discloses the presence of syntenic groups in distantly related mammalian Orders ranging from primates (Homo sapiens), rodents (Mus musculus), even-toed ungulates (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis and Muntiacus reevesi) and whales (Balaenoptera physalus). These mammalian Orders have evolved separately for 55-80 million years (Myr). We conclude that ZOO-FISH can be used to generate comparative chromosome maps of a large number of mammalian species

    Fleece variation in alpaca (Vicugna pacos): a two-locus model for the Suri/Huacaya phenotype

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    Background: Genetic improvement of fibre-producing animal species has often induced transition from double coated to single coated fleece, accompanied by dramatic changes in skin follicles and hair composition, likely implying variation at multiple loci. Huacaya, the more common fleece phenotype in alpaca (Vicugna pacos), is characterized by a thick dense coat growing perpendicularly from the body, whereas the alternative rare and more prized single-coated Suri phenotype is distinguished by long silky fibre that grows parallel to the body and hangs in separate, distinctive pencil locks. A single-locus genetic model has been proposed for the Suri-Huacaya phenotype, where Huacaya is recessive. Results: Two reciprocal experimental test-crosses (Suri x Huacaya) were carried out, involving a total of 17 unrelated males and 149 unrelated females. An additional dataset of 587 offspring of Suri x Suri crosses was analyzed. Segregation ratios, population genotype frequencies, and/or recombination fraction under different genetic models were estimated by maximum likelihood. The single locus model for the Suri/Huacaya phenotype was rejected. In addition, we present two unexpected observations: 1) a large proportion (about 3/4) of the Suri animals are segregating (with at least one Huacaya offspring), even in breeding conditions where the Huacaya trait would have been almost eliminated; 2) a model with two different values of the segregation ratio fit the data significantly better than a model with a single parameter. Conclusions: The data support a genetic model in which two linked loci must simultaneously be homozygous for recessive alleles in order to produce the Huacaya phenotype. The estimated recombination rate between these loci was 0.099 (95% C. L. = 0.029-0.204). Our genetic analysis may be useful for other species whose breeding system produces mainly half-sib families

    Protein deficiency balance as a predictor of clinical outcome in hereditary spherocytosis

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    Vertical and horizontal interactions between membrane constituents account for integrity, strength and deformability of the erythrocyte. Disruption of vertical interactions caused by membrane protein deficiencies in hereditary spherocytosis (HS), favor membrane vesiculation with development of spherocytic cells. Our aim was to evaluate the hematological and clinical presentation of HS according to the type and amount of protein deficiency. We studied 81 Portuguese individuals, 71 belonging to 21 families plus 10 unrelated subjects, and found that 51 of them were HS patients. Patients were classified as presenting mild, typical or severe HS, according to laboratory results and clinical follow-up. We performed screening tests and the standardized electrophoretic membrane protein analysis to identify and quantify protein deficiencies. We found band 3 and ankyrin deficiencies as the major causes for HS. The ratios between the value of the primary and/or secondary protein deficiencies showed significantly different values according to the severity of HS, and a significant inverse correlation with the severity of HS was observed. In mild HS, the ratios between protein deficiencies reflected equivalent protein deficiencies, while an unbalance was observed in typical HS, which was enhanced in severe HS. Our data suggest that the relative quantification of each major membrane protein and of the ratios between the values of protein deficiencies may be helpful in providing additional data about the clinical outcome of HS

    Comparison of Population-Based Association Study Methods Correcting for Population Stratification

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    Population stratification can cause spurious associations in population–based association studies. Several statistical methods have been proposed to reduce the impact of population stratification on population–based association studies. We simulated a set of stratified populations based on the real haplotype data from the HapMap ENCODE project, and compared the relative power, type I error rates, accuracy and positive prediction value of four prevailing population–based association study methods: traditional case-control tests, structured association (SA), genomic control (GC) and principal components analysis (PCA) under various population stratification levels. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of sample sizes and frequencies of disease susceptible allele on the performance of the four analytical methods in the presence of population stratification. We found that the performance of PCA was very stable under various scenarios. Our comparison results suggest that SA and PCA have comparable performance, if sufficient ancestral informative markers are used in SA analysis. GC appeared to be strongly conservative in significantly stratified populations. It may be better to apply GC in the stratified populations with low stratification level. Our study intends to provide a practical guideline for researchers to select proper study methods and make appropriate inference of the results in population-based association studies
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