456 research outputs found

    Significant spatial gradients in new particle formation frequency in Greece during summer

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    Extensive continuous particle number size distribution measurements took place during two summers (2020 and 2021) at 11 sites in Greece for the investigation of the frequency and the spatial extent of new particle formation (NPF). The study area is characterized by high solar intensity and fast photochemistry and has moderate to low fine particulate matter levels during the summer. The average PM2.5 levels were relatively uniform across the examined sites. The NPF frequency during summer varied from close to zero in the southwestern parts of Greece to more than 60‚ÄČ% in the northern, central, and eastern regions. The mean particle growth rate for each station varied between 3.4 and 8‚ÄČnm‚ÄČh‚ąí1, with an average rate of 5.7‚ÄČnm‚ÄČh‚ąí1. At most of the sites there was no statistical difference in the condensation sink between NPF event and non-event days, while lower relative humidity was observed during the events. The high-NPF-frequency sites in the north and northeast were in close proximity to both coal-fired power plants (high emissions of SO2) and agricultural areas with some of the highest ammonia emissions in the country. The southern and western parts of Greece, where NPF was infrequent, were characterized by low ammonia emissions, while moderate levels of sulfuric acid were estimated (107‚ÄČmolec.‚ÄČcm‚ąí3) in the west. Although the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds were higher in western and southern sectors, they did not appear to lead to enhanced frequency of NPF. The infrequent events at these sites occurred when the air masses had spent a few hours over areas with agricultural activities and thus elevated ammonia emissions. Air masses arriving at the sites directly from the sea were not connected with atmospheric NPF. These results support the hypothesis that ammonia and/or amines limit new particle formation in the study area.</p

    A direct method to quantify methanol-soluble organic carbon for brown carbon absorption studies

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    The current research provides a newly developed method to quantify methanol-soluble organic carbon (MeS_OC) in aerosol samples. This analytical procedure allows an accurate separation of MeS-OC component, which is critical for the calculation of mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of ambient Brown Carbon (BrC) and consequently its climate relevant potential. The method includes extraction, filtering and condensation stages, leading to the preparation of a highly concentrated product in which MeS-OC can be precisely quantified by a Sunset Carbon Analyzer in a single analysis step. This method can be applied on aerosol collected using either high or low volume samplers, since a relatively small filter area is required for the determination. Furthermore, it eliminates any misestimation of the MeS-OC mass that may appear in other reported techniques that don't seem to include the precise separation of methanol-soluble fraction in their quantification process. ‚ÄĘ The mass quantification of methanol-soluble organic carbon is essential, contributing up to 50% to the absorptivity of organic aerosol (BrC) at shorter wavelengths. ‚ÄĘ The method provides a direct measurement of methanol-soluble aerosol components, resolving any potential uncertainties of previously applied methods. ‚ÄĘ The adoption of this direct quantification approach leads to a rationalization of past MAE estimates for BrC with implications for radiative transfer models

    Phenomenology of ultrafine particle concentrations and size distribution across urban Europe

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    The 2017-2019 hourly particle number size distributions (PNSD) from 26 sites in Europe and 1 in the US were evaluated focusing on 16 urban background (UB) and 6 traffic (TR) sites in the framework of Research Infrastructures services reinforcing air quality monitoring capacities in European URBAN & industrial areaS (RI-URBANS) project. The main objective was to describe the phenomenology of urban ultrafine particles (UFP) in Europe with a significant air quality focus. The varying lower size detection limits made it difficult to compare PN concentrations (PNC), particularly PN10-25, from different cities. PNCs follow a TR > UB > Suburban (SUB) order. PNC and Black Carbon (BC) progressively increase from Northern Europe to Southern Europe and from Western to Eastern Europe. At the UB sites, typical traffic rush hour PNC peaks are evident, many also showing midday-morning PNC peaks anti-correlated with BC. These peaks result from increased PN10-25, suggesting significant PNC contributions from nucleation, fumigation and shipping. Site types to be identified by daily and seasonal PNC and BC patterns are: (i) PNC mainly driven by traffic emissions, with marked correlations with BC on different time scales; (ii) marked midday/morning PNC peaks and a seasonal anti-correlation with PNC/BC; (iii) both traffic peaks and midday peaks without marked seasonal patterns. Groups (ii) and (iii) included cities with high insolation. PNC, especially PN25-800, was positively correlated with BC, NO2, CO and PM for several sites. The variable correlation of PNSD with different urban pollutants demonstrates that these do not reflect the variability of UFP in urban environments. Specific monitoring of PNSD is needed if nanoparticles and their associated health impacts are to be assessed. Implementation of the CEN-ACTRIS recommendations for PNSD measurements would provide comparable measurements, and measurements of <10 nm PNC are needed for full evaluation of the health effects of this size fraction

    European aerosol phenomenology - 8: Harmonised source apportionment of organic aerosol using 22 Year-long ACSM/AMS datasets

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    Organic aerosol (OA) is a key component of total submicron particulate matter (PM1), and comprehensive knowledge of OA sources across Europe is crucial to mitigate PM1 levels. Europe has a well-established air quality research infrastructure from which yearlong datasets using 21 aerosol chemical speciation monitors (ACSMs) and 1 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were gathered during 2013-2019. It includes 9 non-urban and 13 urban sites. This study developed a state-of-the-art source apportionment protocol to analyse long-term OA mass spectrum data by applying the most advanced source apportionment strategies (i.e., rolling PMF, ME-2, and bootstrap). This harmonised protocol was followed strictly for all 22 datasets, making the source apportionment results more comparable. In addition, it enables quantification of the most common OA components such as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), cooking-like OA (COA), more oxidised-oxygenated OA (MO-OOA), and less oxidised-oxygenated OA (LO-OOA). Other components such as coal combustion OA (CCOA), solid fuel OA (SFOA: mainly mixture of coal and peat combustion), cigarette smoke OA (CSOA), sea salt (mostly inorganic but part of the OA mass spectrum), coffee OA, and ship industry OA could also be separated at a few specific sites. Oxygenated OA (OOA) components make up most of the submicron OA mass (average = 71.1%, range from 43.7 to 100%). Solid fuel combustion-related OA components (i.e., BBOA, CCOA, and SFOA) are still considerable with in total 16.0% yearly contribution to the OA, yet mainly during winter months (21.4%). Overall, this comprehensive protocol works effectively across all sites governed by different sources and generates robust and consistent source apportionment results. Our work presents a comprehensive overview of OA sources in Europe with a unique combination of high time resolution (30-240 min) and long-term data coverage (9-36 months), providing essential information to improve/validate air quality, health impact, and climate models

    Climate Change and Weather Extremes in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

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    Observation‚Äźbased and modeling studies have identified the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region as a prominent climate change hotspot. While several initiatives have addressed the impacts of climate change in parts of the EMME, here we present an updated assessment, covering a wide range of timescales, phenomena and future pathways. Our assessment is based on a revised analysis of recent observations and projections and an extensive overview of the recent scientific literature on the causes and effects of regional climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions in the EMME are growing rapidly, surpassing those of the European Union, hence contributing significantly to climate change. Over the past half‚Äźcentury and especially during recent decades, the EMME has warmed significantly faster than other inhabited regions. At the same time, changes in the hydrological cycle have become evident. The observed recent temperature increase of about 0.45¬įC per decade is projected to continue, although strong global greenhouse gas emission reductions could moderate this trend. In addition to projected changes in mean climate conditions, we call attention to extreme weather events with potentially disruptive societal impacts. These include the strongly increasing severity and duration of heatwaves, droughts and dust storms, as well as torrential rain events that can trigger flash floods. Our review is complemented by a discussion of atmospheric pollution and land‚Äźuse change in the region, including urbanization, desertification and forest fires. Finally, we identify sectors that may be critically affected and formulate adaptation and research recommendations toward greater resilience of the EMME region to climate change. The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East is warming almost two times faster than the global average and other inhabited parts of the world Climate projections indicate a future warming, strongest in summers. Precipitation will likely decrease, particularly in the Mediterranean Virtually all socio‚Äźeconomic sectors will be critically affected by the projected changes The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East is warming almost two times faster than the global average and other inhabited parts of the world Climate projections indicate a future warming, strongest in summers. Precipitation will likely decrease, particularly in the Mediterranean Virtually all socio‚Äźeconomic sectors will be critically affected by the projected change

    Climate Change and Weather Extremes in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    No full text
    Observation‚Äźbased and modeling studies have identified the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region as a prominent climate change hotspot. While several initiatives have addressed the impacts of climate change in parts of the EMME, here we present an updated assessment, covering a wide range of timescales, phenomena and future pathways. Our assessment is based on a revised analysis of recent observations and projections and an extensive overview of the recent scientific literature on the causes and effects of regional climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions in the EMME are growing rapidly, surpassing those of the European Union, hence contributing significantly to climate change. Over the past half‚Äźcentury and especially during recent decades, the EMME has warmed significantly faster than other inhabited regions. At the same time, changes in the hydrological cycle have become evident. The observed recent temperature increase of about 0.45¬įC per decade is projected to continue, although strong global greenhouse gas emission reductions could moderate this trend. In addition to projected changes in mean climate conditions, we call attention to extreme weather events with potentially disruptive societal impacts. These include the strongly increasing severity and duration of heatwaves, droughts and dust storms, as well as torrential rain events that can trigger flash floods. Our review is complemented by a discussion of atmospheric pollution and land‚Äźuse change in the region, including urbanization, desertification and forest fires. Finally, we identify sectors that may be critically affected and formulate adaptation and research recommendations toward greater resilience of the EMME region to climate change.Key Points: The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East is warming almost two times faster than the global average and other inhabited parts of the world. Climate projections indicate a future warming, strongest in summers. Precipitation will likely decrease, particularly in the Mediterranean. Virtually all socio‚Äźeconomic sectors will be critically affected by the projected changes.European Union Horizon 2020https://esg-dn1.nsc.liu.se/search/esgf-liu

    Climate Change and Weather Extremes in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    Get PDF
    Observation-based and modeling studies have identified the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region as a prominent climate change hotspot. While several initiatives have addressed the impacts of climate change in parts of the EMME, here we present an updated assessment, covering a wide range of timescales, phenomena and future pathways. Our assessment is based on a revised analysis of recent observations and projections and an extensive overview of the recent scientific literature on the causes and effects of regional climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions in the EMME are growing rapidly, surpassing those of the European Union, hence contributing significantly to climate change. Over the past half-century and especially during recent decades, the EMME has warmed significantly faster than other inhabited regions. At the same time, changes in the hydrological cycle have become evident. The observed recent temperature increase of about 0.45 degrees C per decade is projected to continue, although strong global greenhouse gas emission reductions could moderate this trend. In addition to projected changes in mean climate conditions, we call attention to extreme weather events with potentially disruptive societal impacts. These include the strongly increasing severity and duration of heatwaves, droughts and dust storms, as well as torrential rain events that can trigger flash floods. Our review is complemented by a discussion of atmospheric pollution and land-use change in the region, including urbanization, desertification and forest fires. Finally, we identify sectors that may be critically affected and formulate adaptation and research recommendations toward greater resilience of the EMME region to climate change.Peer reviewe
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