1,158 research outputs found

    Multimessenger Characterization of Markarian 501 during Historically Low X-Ray and ő≥-Ray Activity

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    We study the broadband emission of Mrk 501 using multiwavelength observations from 2017 to 2020 performed with a multitude of instruments, involving, among others, MAGIC, Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT), NuSTAR, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. Mrk 501 showed an extremely low broadband activity, which may help to unravel its baseline emission. Nonetheless, significant flux variations are detected at all wave bands, with the highest occurring at X-rays and very-high-energy (VHE) ő≥ -rays. A significant correlation (>3 ŌÉ ) between X-rays and VHE ő≥ -rays is measured, supporting leptonic scenarios to explain the variable parts of the emission, also during low activity. This is further supported when we extend our data from 2008 to 2020, and identify, for the first time, significant correlations between the Swift X-Ray Telescope and Fermi-LAT. We additionally find correlations between high-energy ő≥ -rays and radio, with the radio lagging by more than 100 days, placing the ő≥ -ray emission zone upstream of the radio-bright regions in the jet. Furthermore, Mrk 501 showed a historically low activity in X-rays and VHE ő≥ -rays from mid-2017 to mid-2019 with a stable VHE flux (>0.2 TeV) of 5% the emission of the Crab Nebula. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of this 2 yr long low state, the potential baseline emission of Mrk 501, can be characterized with one-zone leptonic models, and with (lepto)-hadronic models fulfilling neutrino flux constraints from IceCube. We explore the time evolution of the SED toward the low state, revealing that the stable baseline emission may be ascribed to a standing shock, and the variable emission to an additional expanding or traveling shock

    Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Large-Sized Telescope Prototype of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very-high energies. The Large-Sized Telescope prototype (\LST{}) is located at the Northern site of CTA, on the Canary Island of La Palma. LSTs are designed to provide optimal performance in the lowest part of the energy range covered by CTA, down to ‚ČÉ20\simeq 20 GeV. \LST{} started performing astronomical observations in November 2019, during its commissioning phase, and it has been taking data since then. We present the first \LST{} observations of the Crab Nebula, the standard candle of very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy, and use them, together with simulations, to assess the basic performance parameters of the telescope. The data sample consists of around 36 hours of observations at low zenith angles collected between November 2020 and March 2022. \LST{} has reached the expected performance during its commissioning period - only a minor adjustment of the preexisting simulations was needed to match the telescope behavior. The energy threshold at trigger level is estimated to be around 20 GeV, rising to ‚ČÉ30\simeq 30 GeV after data analysis. Performance parameters depend strongly on energy, and on the strength of the gamma-ray selection cuts in the analysis: angular resolution ranges from 0.12 to 0.40 degrees, and energy resolution from 15 to 50\%. Flux sensitivity is around 1.1\% of the Crab Nebula flux above 250 GeV for a 50-h observation (12\% for 30 minutes). The spectral energy distribution (in the 0.03 - 30 TeV range) and the light curve obtained for the Crab Nebula agree with previous measurements, considering statistical and systematic uncertainties. A clear periodic signal is also detected from the pulsar at the center of the Nebula.Comment: Submitted to Ap

    Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Large-Sized Telescope Prototype of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    International audienceCTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very-high energies. The Large-Sized Telescope prototype (\LST) is located at the Northern site of CTA, on the Canary Island of La Palma. LSTs are designed to provide optimal performance in the lowest part of the energy range covered by CTA, down to ‚ČÉ20\simeq 20 GeV. \LST started performing astronomical observations in November 2019, during its commissioning phase, and it has been taking data since then. We present the first \LST observations of the Crab Nebula, the standard candle of very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy, and use them, together with simulations, to assess the basic performance parameters of the telescope. The data sample consists of around 36 hours of observations at low zenith angles collected between November 2020 and March 2022. \LST has reached the expected performance during its commissioning period - only a minor adjustment of the preexisting simulations was needed to match the telescope behavior. The energy threshold at trigger level is estimated to be around 20 GeV, rising to ‚ČÉ30\simeq 30 GeV after data analysis. Performance parameters depend strongly on energy, and on the strength of the gamma-ray selection cuts in the analysis: angular resolution ranges from 0.12 to 0.40 degrees, and energy resolution from 15 to 50%. Flux sensitivity is around 1.1% of the Crab Nebula flux above 250 GeV for a 50-h observation (12% for 30 minutes). The spectral energy distribution (in the 0.03 - 30 TeV range) and the light curve obtained for the Crab Nebula agree with previous measurements, considering statistical and systematic uncertainties. A clear periodic signal is also detected from the pulsar at the center of the Nebula

    Performance of the joint LST-1 and MAGIC observations evaluated with Crab Nebula data

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    International audienceAims. LST-1, the prototype of the Large-Sized Telescope for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, is concluding its commissioning in Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma. The proximity of LST-1 (Large-Sized Telescope 1) to the two MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes permits observations of the same gamma-ray events with both systems. Methods. We describe the joint LST-1+MAGIC analysis pipeline and use simultaneous Crab Nebula observations and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the performance of the three-telescope system. The addition of the LST-1 telescope allows the recovery of events in which one of the MAGIC images is too dim to survive analysis quality cuts. Results. Thanks to the resulting increase in the collection area and stronger background rejection, we find a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing the detection of 30% weaker fluxes in the energy range between 200 GeV and 3 TeV. The spectrum of the Crab Nebula, reconstructed in the energy range ~60 GeV to ~10 TeV, is in agreement with previous measurements

    Fermi-GBM Discovery of GRB 221009A: An Extraordinarily Bright GRB from Onset to Afterglow

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    We report the discovery of GRB 221009A, the highest flux gamma-ray burst ever observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). This GRB has continuous prompt emission lasting more than 600 seconds which smoothly transitions to afterglow visible in the GBM energy range (8 keV--40 MeV), and total energetics higher than any other burst in the GBM sample. By using a variety of new and existing analysis techniques we probe the spectral and temporal evolution of GRB 221009A. We find no emission prior to the GBM trigger time (t0; 2022 October 9 at 13:16:59.99 UTC), indicating that this is the time of prompt emission onset. The triggering pulse exhibits distinct spectral and temporal properties suggestive of the thermal, photospheric emission of shock-breakout, with significant emission up to ‚ąľ\sim15 MeV. We characterize the onset of external shock at t0+600 s and find evidence of a plateau region in the early-afterglow phase which transitions to a slope consistent with Swift-XRT afterglow measurements. We place the total energetics of GRB 221009A in context with the rest of the GBM sample and find that this GRB has the highest total isotropic-equivalent energy (Eő≥,iso=1.0√ó1055\textrm{E}_{\gamma,\textrm{iso}}=1.0\times10^{55} erg) and second highest isotropic-equivalent luminosity (Lő≥,iso=9.9√ó1053\textrm{L}_{\gamma,\textrm{iso}}=9.9\times10^{53} erg/s) based on redshift of z = 0.151. These extreme energetics are what allowed us to observe the continuously emitting central engine of GBM from the beginning of the prompt emission phase through the onset of early afterglow.Comment: 26 pages 7 figures - accepted for publication in ApJ

    Prospects for a survey of the Galactic plane with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    International audienceApproximately one hundred sources of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays are known in the Milky Way. A survey of the entire Galactic Plane in the energy range from a few tens of GeV to a few hundred TeV has been proposed as a Key Science Project for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO). This article presents the status of the studies towards the Galactic Plane Survey (GPS). We build and make publicly available a sky model that combines data from observations of known gamma-ray emitters with state-of-the-art physically-driven models of synthetic populations of the main classes of established Galactic VHE sources, as well as of interstellar emission from cosmic-ray interactions in the Milky Way. We also perform an optimisation of the observation strategy. We use the improved sky model and observation strategy to simulate GPS data that are analysed using the methods and software tools under development for real data. We show that the GPS has the potential to increase the number of known Galactic VHE emitters by almost a factor of five. This corresponds to the detection of more than two hundred pulsar wind nebulae and a few tens of supernova remnants at average integral fluxes one order of magnitude lower than in the existing sample above 1 TeV, therefore opening the possibility to perform unprecedented population studies. The GPS also has the potential to provide new VHE detections of binary systems and pulsars, and to identify any bright PeVatrons. Furthermore, the GPS will constitute a pathfinder for deeper follow-up observations of these source classes. Finally, we show that we can extract from GPS data an estimate of the contribution to diffuse emission from unresolved sources, and that there are good prospects of detecting interstellar emission and statistically distinguishing different scenarios. (Abridged

    The Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars

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    International audienceWe present 294 pulsars found in GeV data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Another 33 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) discovered in deep radio searches of LAT sources will likely reveal pulsations once phase-connected rotation ephemerides are achieved. A further dozen optical and/or X-ray binary systems co-located with LAT sources also likely harbor gamma-ray MSPs. This catalog thus reports roughly 340 gamma-ray pulsars and candidates, 10% of all known pulsars, compared to ‚ȧ11\leq 11 known before Fermi. Half of the gamma-ray pulsars are young. Of these, the half that are undetected in radio have a broader Galactic latitude distribution than the young radio-loud pulsars. The others are MSPs, with 6 undetected in radio. Overall, >235 are bright enough above 50 MeV to fit the pulse profile, the energy spectrum, or both. For the common two-peaked profiles, the gamma-ray peak closest to the magnetic pole crossing generally has a softer spectrum. The spectral energy distributions tend to narrow as the spindown power Eňô\dot E decreases to its observed minimum near 103310^{33} erg s‚ąí1^{-1}, approaching the shape for synchrotron radiation from monoenergetic electrons. We calculate gamma-ray luminosities when distances are available. Our all-sky gamma-ray sensitivity map is useful for population syntheses. The electronic catalog version provides gamma-ray pulsar ephemerides, properties and fit results to guide and be compared with modeling results

    Star tracking for pointing determination of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Application to the Large-Sized Telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    A lower bound on intergalactic magnetic fields from time variability of 1ES 0229+200 from MAGIC and Fermi /LAT observations

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    Context. Extended and delayed emission around distant TeV sources induced by the effects of propagation of ? ray s through the intergalactic medium can be used for the measurement of the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). Aims. We search for delayed GeV emission from the hard-spectrum TeV ?-ray emitting blazar 1ES 0229+200, with the goal of detecting or constraining the IGMF-dependent secondary flux generated during the propagation of TeV ? rays through the intergalactic medium. Methods. We analysed the most recent MAGIC observations over a 5 year time span, and complemented them with historic data of the H.E.S.S. and VERITAS telescopes, along with a 12-year-long exposure of the Fermi/LAT telescope. We used them to trace source evolution in the GeV TeV band over a decade and a half. We used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the delayed secondary ?-ray flux, modulated by the source variability, as revealed by TeV-band observations. We then compared these predictions for various assumed IGMF strengths to all available measurements of the ?-ray flux evolution. Results. We find that the source flux in the energy range above 200 GeV experiences variations around its average on the 14-year time span of observations. No evidence for the flux variability is found in the 1100 GeV energy range accessible to Fermi/LAT. The non-detection of variability due to delayed emission from electromagnetic cascade developing in the intergalactic medium imposes a lower bound of B > 1.8 - 1017 G for the long-correlation-length IGMF and B > 1014 G for an IGMF of cosmological origin. Though weaker than the one previously derived from the analysis of Fermi/LAT data, this bound is more robust, being based on a conservative intrinsic source spectrum estimate and accounting for the details of source variability in the TeV energy band. We discuss implications of this bound for cosmological magnetic fields that might explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe

    Multi-year characterisation of the broad-band emission from the intermittent extreme BL Lac 1ES~2344+514

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    The BL Lac 1ES 2344+514 is known for temporary extreme properties (e.g., a shift of the synchrotron SED peak energy őĹsynch,p\nu_{synch,p} above 1keV). While those extreme states were so far observed only during high flux levels, additional multi-year observing campaigns are required to achieve a coherent picture. Here, we report the longest investigation of the source from radio to VHE performed so far, focusing on a systematic characterisation of the intermittent extreme states. While our results confirm that 1ES 2344+514 typically exhibits őĹsynch,p>\nu_{synch,p}>1keV during elevated flux periods, we also find periods where the extreme state coincides with low flux activity. A strong spectral variability thus happens in the quiescent state, and is likely caused by an increase of the electron acceleration efficiency without a change in the electron injection luminosity. We also report a strong X-ray flare (among the brightest for 1ES 2344+514) without a significant shift of őĹsynch,p\nu_{synch,p}. During this particular flare, the X-ray spectrum is among the softest of the campaign. It unveils complexity in the spectral evolution, where the common harder-when-brighter trend observed in BL Lacs is violated. During a low and hard X-ray state, we find an excess of the UV flux with respect to an extrapolation of the X-ray spectrum to lower energies. This UV excess implies that at least two regions contribute significantly to the infrared/optical/ultraviolet/X-ray emission. Using the simultaneous MAGIC, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and AstroSat observations, we argue that a region possibly associated with the 10 GHz radio core may explain such an excess. Finally, we investigate a VHE flare, showing an absence of simultaneous variability in the 0.3-2keV band. Using a time-dependent leptonic modelling, we show that this behaviour, in contradiction to single-zone scenarios, can instead be explained by a two-component model.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic
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