422 research outputs found

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of <math><mmultiscripts><mi>Th</mi><mprescripts/><none/><mn>232</mn></mmultiscripts></math> and <math><mmultiscripts><mi mathvariant="normal">U</mi><mprescripts/><none/><mn>233</mn></mmultiscripts></math> up to 1 GeV using parallel plate avalanche counters at the CERN n_TOF facility

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    International audienceThe neutron-induced fission cross sections of Th232 and U233 were measured relative to U235 in a wide neutron energy range up to 1 GeV (and from fission threshold in the case of Th232, and from 0.7 eV in case of U233), using the white-spectrum neutron source at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) facility. Parallel plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were used, installed at the Experimental Area 1 (EAR1), which is located at 185 m from the neutron spallation target. The anisotropic emission of fission fragments were taken into account in the detection efficiency by using, in the case of U233, previous results available in EXFOR, whereas in the case of Th232 these data were obtained from our measurement, using PPACs and targets tilted 45∘ with respect to the neutron beam direction. Finally, the obtained results are compared with past measurements and major evaluated nuclear data libraries. Calculations using the high-energy reaction models INCL++ and ABLA07 were performed and some of their parameters were modified to reproduce the experimental results. At high energies, where no other neutron data exist, our results are compared with experimental data on proton-induced fission. Moreover, the dependence of the fission cross section at 1 GeV with the fissility parameter of the target nucleus is studied by combining those (p,f) data with our (n,f) data on Th232 and U233 and on other isotopes studied earlier at n_TOF using the same experimental setup

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of Th 232 and U 233 up to 1 GeV using parallel plate avalanche counters at the CERN n_TOF facility

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    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of 232^{232}Th and 233^{233}U were measured relative to 235^{235}U in a wide neutron energy range up to 1 GeV (and from fission threshold in the case of 232^{232}Th, and from 0.7 eV in case of 233^{233}U), using the white-spectrum neutron source at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) facility. Parallel plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were used, installed at the Experimental Area 1 (EAR1), which is located at 185 m from the neutron spallation target. The anisotropic emission of fission fragments were taken into account in the detection efficiency by using, in the case of 233^{233}U, previous results available in EXFOR, whereas in the case of 232^{232}Th these data were obtained from our measurement, using PPACs and targets tilted 45∘ with respect to the neutron beam direction. Finally, the obtained results are compared with past measurements and major evaluated nuclear data libraries. Calculations using the high-energy reaction models INCL++ and ABLA07 were performed and some of their parameters were modified to reproduce the experimental results. At high energies, where no other neutron data exist, our results are compared with experimental data on proton-induced fission. Moreover, the dependence of the fission cross section at 1 GeV with the fissility parameter of the target nucleus is studied by combining those (p,f) data with our (n,f) data on 232^{232}Th and 233^{233}U and on other isotopes studied earlier at n_TOF using the same experimental setup

    Modelling of the effect of ELMs on fuel retention at the bulk W divertor of JET

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    Effect of ELMs on fuel retention at the bulk W target of JET ITER-Like Wall was studied with multi-scale calculations. Plasma input parameters were taken from ELMy H-mode plasma experiment. The energetic intra-ELM fuel particles get implanted and create near-surface defects up to depths of few tens of nm, which act as the main fuel trapping sites during ELMs. Clustering of implantation-induced vacancies were found to take place. The incoming flux of inter-ELM plasma particles increases the different filling levels of trapped fuel in defects. The temperature increase of the W target during the pulse increases the fuel detrapping rate. The inter-ELM fuel particle flux refills the partially emptied trapping sites and fills new sites. This leads to a competing effect on the retention and release rates of the implanted particles. At high temperatures the main retention appeared in larger vacancy clusters due to increased clustering rate

    Comparison of the structure of the plasma-facing surface and tritium accumulation in beryllium tiles from JET ILW campaigns 2011-2012 and 2013-2014

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    In this study, beryllium tiles from Joint European Torus (JET) vacuum vessel wall were analysed and compared regarding their position in the vacuum vessel and differences in the exploitation conditions during two campaigns of ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) in 2011–2012 (ILW1) and 2013–2014 (ILW2) Tritium content in beryllium samples were assessed. Two methods were used to measure tritium content in the samples – dissolution under controlled conditions and tritium thermal desorption. Prior to desorption and dissolution experiments, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to study structure and chemical composition of plasma-facing-surfaces of the beryllium samples. Experimental results revealed that tritium content in the samples is in range of 2·1011^{11}–2·1013^{13} tritium atoms per square centimetre of the surface area with its highest content in the samples from the outer wall of the vacuum vessel (up to 1.9·1013^{13} atoms/cm2^{2} in ILW1 campaign and 2.4·1013^{13} atoms/cm2^{2} in ILW2). The lowest content of tritium was found in the upper part of the vacuum vessel (2.0·1012^{12} atoms/cm2^{2} and 2.0·1011^{11} atoms/cm2^{2} in ILW1 and ILW2, respectively). Results obtained from scanning electron microscopy has shown that surface morphology is different within single tile, however if to compare two campaigns main tendencies remains similar

    Impact of ICRF on the scrape-off layer and on plasma wall interactions: From present experiments to fusion reactor

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    Recent achievements in studies of the effects of ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) power on the SOL (Scrape-Off Layer) and PWI (Plasma Wall Interactions) in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), Alcator C-Mod, and JET-ILW are reviewed. Capabilities to diagnose and model the effect of DC biasing and associated impurity production at active antennas and on magnetic field connections to antennas are described. The experiments show that ICRF near-fields can lead not only to E×B convection, but also to modifications of the SOL density, which for Alcator C-Mod are limited to a narrow region near antenna. On the other hand, the SOL density distribution along with impurity sources can be tailored using local gas injection in AUG and JET-ILW with a positive effect on reduction of impurity sources. The technique of RF image current cancellation at antenna limiters was successfully applied in AUG using the 3-strap AUG antenna and extended to the 4-strap Alcator C-Mod field-aligned antenna. Multiple observations confirmed the reduction of the impact of ICRF on the SOL and on total impurity production when the ratio of the power of the central straps to the total antenna power is in the range 0.6<Pcen_{cen}/Ptotal_{total}<0.8. Near-field calculations indicate that this fairly robust technique can be applied to the ITER ICRF antenna, enabling the mode of operation with reduced PWI. On the contrary, for the A2 antenna in JET-ILW the technique is hindered by RF sheaths excited at the antenna septum. Thus, in order to reduce the effect of ICRF power on PWI in a future fusion reactor, the antenna design has to be optimized along with design of plasmafacing components