533 research outputs found

    A Note on Quantum Field Theories with a Minimal Length Scale

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    The aim of this note is to address the low energy limit of quantum field theories with a minimal length scale. The essential feature of these models is that the minimal length acts as a regulator in the asymptotic high energy limit which is incorporated through an infinite series of higher order derivatives. If one investigates a perturbative expansion in inverse powers of the Planck mass, one generically obtains extra poles in the propagator, and instabilities connected with the higher order derivative Lagrangian, that are however artifacts of truncating the series

    Inflation from Geometrical Tachyons

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    We propose an alternative formulation of tachyon inflation using the geometrical tachyon arising from the time dependent motion of a BPS D3D3-brane in the background geometry due to kk parallel NSNS5-branes arranged around a ring of radius RR . Due to the fact that the mass of this geometrical tachyon field is 2/k\sqrt{2/k} times smaller than the corresponding open-string tachyon mass, we find that the slow roll conditions for inflation and the number of e-foldings can be satisfied in a manner that is consistent with an effective 4-dimensional model and with a perturbative string coupling. We also show that the metric perturbations produced at the end of inflation can be sufficiently small and do not lead to the inconsistencies that plague the open string tachyon models. Finally we argue for the existence of a minimum of the geometrical tachyon potential which could give rise to a traditional reheating mechanism.Comment: Latex, 20 pages, 4 figures; correction of algebraic errors in section 5 concerning the tachyon potential near its minimum. Conclusions unchange

    Reheating the Universe After Multi-Field Inflation

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    We study in detail (p)reheating after multi-field inflation models with a particular focus on N-flation. We consider a variety of different couplings between the inflatons and the matter sector, including both quartic and trilinear interactions with a light scalar field. We show that the presence of multiple oscillating inflatons makes parametric resonance inefficient in the case of the quartic interactions. Moreover, perturbative processes do not permit a complete decay of the inflaton for this coupling. In order to recover the hot big bang, we must instead consider trilinear couplings. In this case we show that strong nonperturbative preheating is possible via multi-field tachyonic resonance. In addition, late-time perturbative effects do permit a complete decay of the condensate. We also study the production of gauge fields for several prototype couplings, finding similar results to the trilinear scalar coupling. During the course of our analysis we develop the mathematical theory of the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation, the multi-field generalization of the Floquet theory familiar from preheating after single field inflation. We also elaborate on the theory of perturbative decays of a classical inflaton condensate, which is applicable in single-field models also.Comment: 46+1 pages, 19 figure

    Tachyon Defect Formation and Reheating in Brane-Antibrane Inflation

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    We study analytically the dynamical formation of lower dimensional branes at the endpoint of brane-antibrane inflation through the condensation of topological defects of the tachyon field which describes the instability of the initial state. We then use this information to quantify the efficiency of the reheating which is due to the coupling of time dependent tachyon background to massless gauge fields which will be localized on the final state branes. We improve upon previous estimates indicating that this can be an efficient reheating mechanism for observers on the brane.Comment: 9 pages. Talk given at the 26th annual Montreal-Rochester-Syracuse-Toronto Conference on High-Energy Physics: MRST 200

    Fisher Equation for a Decaying Brane

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    We consider the inhomogeneous decay of an unstable D-brane. The dynamical equation that describes this process (in light-cone time) is a variant of the non-linear reaction-diffusion equation that first made its appearance in the pioneering work of (Luther and) Fisher and appears in a variety of natural phenomena.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figure

    Tachyon cosmology with non-vanishing minimum potential: a unified model

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    We investigate the tachyon condensation process in the effective theory with non-vanishing minimum potential and its implications to cosmology. It is shown that the tachyon condensation on an unstable three-brane described by this modified tachyon field theory leads to lower-dimensional branes (defects) forming within a stable three-brane. Thus, in the cosmological background, we can get well-behaved tachyon matter after tachyon inflation, (partially) avoiding difficulties encountered in the original tachyon cosmological models. This feature also implies that the tachyon inflated and reheated universe is followed by a Chaplygin gas dark matter and dark energy universe. Hence, such an unstable three-brane behaves quite like our universe, reproducing the key features of the whole evolutionary history of the universe and providing a unified description of inflaton, dark matter and dark energy in a very simple single-scalar field model.Comment: 18 p

    Phenomenology of a Pseudo-Scalar Inflaton: Naturally Large Nongaussianity

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    Many controlled realizations of chaotic inflation employ pseudo-scalar axions. Pseudo-scalars \phi are naturally coupled to gauge fields through c \phi F \tilde{F}. In the presence of this coupling, gauge field quanta are copiously produced by the rolling inflaton. The produced gauge quanta, in turn, source inflaton fluctuations via inverse decay. These new cosmological perturbations add incoherently with the "vacuum" perturbations, and are highly nongaussian. This provides a natural mechanism to generate large nongaussianity in single or multi field slow-roll inflation. The resulting phenomenological signatures are highly distinctive: large nongaussianity of (nearly) equilateral shape, in addition to detectably large values of both the scalar spectral tilt and tensor-to-scalar ratio (both being typical of large field inflation). The WMAP bound on nongaussianity implies that the coupling, c, of the pseudo-scalar inflaton to any gauge field must be smaller than about 10^{2} M_p^{-1}.Comment: 45 pages, 7 figure

    Dynamics with Infinitely Many Derivatives: The Initial Value Problem

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    Differential equations of infinite order are an increasingly important class of equations in theoretical physics. Such equations are ubiquitous in string field theory and have recently attracted considerable interest also from cosmologists. Though these equations have been studied in the classical mathematical literature, it appears that the physics community is largely unaware of the relevant formalism. Of particular importance is the fate of the initial value problem. Under what circumstances do infinite order differential equations possess a well-defined initial value problem and how many initial data are required? In this paper we study the initial value problem for infinite order differential equations in the mathematical framework of the formal operator calculus, with analytic initial data. This formalism allows us to handle simultaneously a wide array of different nonlocal equations within a single framework and also admits a transparent physical interpretation. We show that differential equations of infinite order do not generically admit infinitely many initial data. Rather, each pole of the propagator contributes two initial data to the final solution. Though it is possible to find differential equations of infinite order which admit well-defined initial value problem with only two initial data, neither the dynamical equations of p-adic string theory nor string field theory seem to belong to this class. However, both theories can be rendered ghost-free by suitable definition of the action of the formal pseudo-differential operator. This prescription restricts the theory to frequencies within some contour in the complex plane and hence may be thought of as a sort of ultra-violet cut-off.Comment: 40 pages, no figures. Added comments concerning fractional operators and the implications of restricting the contour of integration. Typos correcte

    Warming up brane-antibrane inflation

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    We show that, in constructions with additional intersecting D-branes, brane-antibrane inflation may naturally occur in a warm regime, such that strong dissipative effects damp the inflaton's motion, greatly alleviating the associated eta-problem. We illustrate this for D3-antiD3 inflation in flat space with additional flavor D7-branes, where for both a Coulomb-like or a quadratic hybrid potential a sufficient number of e-folds may be obtained for perturbative couplings and O(10-10^4) branes. This is in clear contrast with the corresponding cold scenarios, thus setting the stage for more realistic constructions within fully stabilized compactifications. Such models generically predict a negligible amount of tensor perturbations and non-gaussianity f_NL \sim O(10).Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures; version to be published in Physical Review
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