3,581 research outputs found

    The wild cost of invasive feral animals worldwide

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    Invasive non-native species are a growing burden to economies worldwide. While domesticated animals (i.e., livestock, beasts of burden or pets) have enabled our ways of life and provide sustenance for countless individuals, they may cause substantial impacts when they escape or are released (i.e., become feral) and then become invasive with impacts. We used the InvaCost to evaluate monetary impacts from species in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System database. We found a total cost of 141.95billionfromonly18invasiveferalspecies.Invasiveferallivestockincurredthehighestcostsat141.95 billion from only 18 invasive feral species. Invasive feral livestock incurred the highest costs at 90.03 billion, with pets contributing 50.93billionandbeastsofburdenhavingmuchlowercostsat50.93 billion and beasts of burden having much lower costs at 0.98 billion. Agriculture was the most affected sector at 80.79billion,followedbytheEnvironment(80.79 billion, followed by the Environment (43.44 billion), and Authorities-Stakeholders sectors (5.52billion).Damagecostscomprisedthemajority(5.52 billion). Damage costs comprised the majority (124.94 billion), with management and mixed damage-management costs making up the rest (9.62and9.62 and 7.38 billion, respectively). These economic impacts were observed globally, where Oceania, North America and Europe were the most impacted regions. Islands recorded a higher economic burden than continental areas, with livestock species dominating costs more on islands than mainlands compared to other feral species. The costs of invasive feral animals were on average twice higher than those of wild species. The management of invasive feral populations requires higher investment, updated regulations, and comprehensive risk assessments. These are especially complex when considering the potential conflicts arising from interventions with species that have close ties to humans. Effective messaging to raise public awareness of the impacts of feral populations and appropriate legislation to prevent or control such invasive feral populations will substantially contribute to minimizing their socioeconomic and environmental impacts

    CARIOQA: Definition of a Quantum Pathfinder Mission

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    Proceedings of International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO) 2022; 3-7 October 2022; Dubrovnik; CroatiaA strong potential gain for space applications is expected from the anticipated performances of inertial sensors based on cold atom interferometry (CAI) that measure the acceleration of freely falling independent atoms by manipulating them with laser light. In this context, CNES and its partners initiated a phase 0 study, called CARIOQA, in order to develop a Quantum Pathfinder Mission unlocking key features of atom interferometry for space and paving the way for future ambitious space missions utilizing this technology. As a cornerstone for the implementation of quantum sensors in space, the CARIOQA phase 0 aimed at defining the Quantum Pathfinder Mission's scenario and associated performance objectives. To comply with these objectives, the payload architecture has been designed to achieve long interrogation time and active rotation compensation on a BEC-based atom interferometer. A study of the satellite architecture, including all the subsystems, has been conducted. Several technical solutions for propulsion and attitude control have been investigated in order to guarantee optimal operating conditions (limitation of micro-vibrations, maximization of measurement time). A preliminary design of the satellite platform was performed

    Food processing and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background & Aims: Several studies have been published on the association between food processing and risks of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), with some variability in results. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to study this association. Methods: From PubMed, Medline, and Embase until October 2022, we identified cohort studies that studied the association between food processing and the risk of CD or UC. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We computed pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects meta-analysis based on estimates and standard errors. Results: A total of 1,068,425 participants were included (13,594,422 person-years) among 5 cohort studies published between 2020 and 2022. Four of the 5 included studies were scored as high quality. The average age of participants ranged from 43 to 56 years; 55%–83% were female. During follow-up, 916 participants developed CD, and 1934 developed UC. There was an increased risk for development of CD for participants with higher consumption of ultra-processed foods compared with those with lower consumption (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.37–2.14; I2 = 0%) and a lower risk of CD for participants with higher consumption of unprocessed/minimally processed foods compared with those with lower consumption (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53–0.94; I2 = 11%). There was no association between risk of UC and ultra-processed foods (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.86–1.61; I2 = 74%) or unprocessed/minimally processed foods (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68–1.02; I2 = 0%). Conclusions: Higher ultra-processed food and lower unprocessed/minimally processed food intakes are associated with higher risk of CD but not UC

    Technologies for the ELGAR large scale atom interferometer array

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    We proposed the European Laboratory for Gravitation and Atom-interferometric Research (ELGAR), an array of atom gradiometers aimed at studying space-time and gravitation with the primary goal of observing gravitational waves (GWs) in the infrasound band with a peak strain sensitivity of 3.3×10−22/Hz‟‟‟√ at 1.7 Hz. In this paper we detail the main technological bricks of this large scale detector and emphasis the research pathways to be conducted for its realization. We discuss the site options, atom optics, and source requirements needed to reach the target sensitivity. We then discuss required seismic isolation techniques, Gravity Gradient Noise reduction strategies, and the metrology of various noise couplings to the detector

    Invasive hematophagous arthropods and associated diseases in a changing world

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    Abstract Biological invasions have increased significantly with the tremendous growth of international trade and transport. Hematophagous arthropods can be vectors of infectious and potentially lethal pathogens and parasites, thus constituting a growing threat to humans—especially when associated with biological invasions. Today, several major vector-borne diseases, currently described as emerging or re-emerging, are expanding in a world dominated by climate change, land-use change and intensive transportation of humans and goods. In this review, we retrace the historical trajectory of these invasions to better understand their ecological, physiological and genetic drivers and their impacts on ecosystems and human health. We also discuss arthropod management strategies to mitigate future risks by harnessing ecology, public health, economics and social-ethnological considerations. Trade and transport of goods and materials, including vertebrate introductions and worn tires, have historically been important introduction pathways for the most prominent invasive hematophagous arthropods, but sources and pathways are likely to diversify with future globalization. Burgeoning urbanization, climate change and the urban heat island effect are likely to interact to favor invasive hematophagous arthropods and the diseases they can vector. To mitigate future invasions of hematophagous arthropods and novel disease outbreaks, stronger preventative monitoring and transboundary surveillance measures are urgently required. Proactive approaches, such as the use of monitoring and increased engagement in citizen science, would reduce epidemiological and ecological risks and could save millions of lives and billions of dollars spent on arthropod control and disease management. Last, our capacities to manage invasive hematophagous arthropods in a sustainable way for worldwide ecosystems can be improved by promoting interactions among experts of the health sector, stakeholders in environmental issues and policymakers (e.g. the One Health approach) while considering wider social perceptions. Graphical abstrac

    Alteration of the embryonic microenvironment and sex-specific responses of the preimplantation embryo related to a maternal high-fat diet in the rabbit model

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    International audienceAbstract The maternal metabolic environment can be detrimental to the health of the offspring. In a previous work, we showed that maternal high-fat (HH) feeding in rabbit induced sex-dependent metabolic adaptation in the fetus and led to metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. As early development representing a critical window of susceptibility, in the present work we aimed to explore the effects of the HH diet on the oocyte, preimplantation embryo and its microenvironment. In oocytes from females on HH diet, transcriptomic analysis revealed a weak modification in the content of transcripts mainly involved in meiosis and translational control. The effect of maternal HH diet on the embryonic microenvironment was investigated by identifying the metabolite composition of uterine and embryonic fluids collected in vivo by biomicroscopy. Metabolomic analysis revealed differences in the HH uterine fluid surrounding the embryo, with increased pyruvate concentration. Within the blastocoelic fluid, metabolomic profiles showed decreased glucose and alanine concentrations. In addition, the blastocyst transcriptome showed under-expression of genes and pathways involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid transport and metabolism, most pronounced in female embryos. This work demonstrates that the maternal HH diet disrupts the in vivo composition of the embryonic microenvironment, where the presence of nutrients is increased. In contrast to this nutrient-rich environment, the embryo presents a decrease in nutrient sensing and metabolism suggesting a potential protective process. In addition, this work identifies a very early sex-specific response to the maternal HH diet, from the blastocyst stage

    Mission Tara Microplastics: a holistic set of protocols and data resources for the field investigation of plastic pollution along the land-sea continuum in Europe

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    Abstract The Tara Microplastics mission was conducted for 7 months to investigate plastic pollution along nine major rivers in Europe—Thames, Elbe, Rhine, Seine, Loire, Garonne, Ebro, Rhone, and Tiber. An extensive suite of sampling protocols was applied at four to five sites on each river along a salinity gradient from the sea and the outer estuary to downstream and upstream of the first heavily populated city. Biophysicochemical parameters including salinity, temperature, irradiance, particulate matter, large and small microplastics (MPs) concentration and composition, prokaryote and microeukaryote richness, and diversity on MPs and in the surrounding waters were routinely measured onboard the French research vessel Tara or from a semi-rigid boat in shallow waters. In addition, macroplastic and microplastic concentrations and composition were determined on river banks and beaches. Finally, cages containing either pristine pieces of plastics in the form of films or granules, and others containing mussels were immersed at each sampling site, 1 month prior to sampling in order to study the metabolic activity of the plastisphere by meta-OMICS and to run toxicity tests and pollutants analyses. Here, we fully described the holistic set of protocols designed for the Mission Tara Microplastics and promoted standard procedures to achieve its ambitious goals: (1) compare traits of plastic pollution among European rivers, (2) provide a baseline of the state of plastic pollution in the Anthropocene, (3) predict their evolution in the frame of the current European initiatives, (4) shed light on the toxicological effects of plastic on aquatic life, (5) model the transport of microplastics from land towards the sea, and (6) investigate the potential impact of pathogen or invasive species rafting on drifting plastics from the land to the sea through riverine systems

    PDRs4All. II. JWST's NIR and MIR imaging view of the Orion Nebula

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