90 research outputs found

    Evaluation of ecological status of the Persian Gulf inshore waters (Hormozgan rocky bottoms) using macrophytic communities and a macroalgae biological index, EEI

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    Marine benthic macrophytes (seaweed and seagrasses) are key structural and functional components of some of the most productive ecosystems of the world. They absorb nutrients through their surface directly from the marine environment and thus they are very important biological elements for the estimation of ecological status, representing reliable indicators of coastal waters. The aim of this study was to assess the ecological status and trophic level of Hormozgan rocky bottoms according to Ecological Evaluation Index (EEI). Sampling was done bi-monthly at seven stations at the intertidal rocky shores, west of Hormozgan Province. In this study a total of 63 species were identified, of which 15 species from seven genera belonged to green algae; 16 species from five genera belonged to brown algae; and 32 species from nine genera belonged to red algae. Coverage data of macroalgae and EEI indicate a high level of eutrophication for Saieh khosh, and Bostaneh. They are classified as zones with bad and poor ecological status, respectively. Also it has been proved that concentrations of biogenic elements and phytoplankton blooming are higher in these zones. The best values of the estimated metrics at Tahooneh and Michaeil could be explained with the good ecological conditions in those zones and the absence of pollution sources close to those transects. The values of abundance of macroalgae and EEI indicate moderate ecological conditions for Koohin, Lengeh and Chirooieh

    Determination of the ecological status of rocky shores of Hormozgan Province through ecological study of seaweeds

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    Sampling was done from March 2012 until January 2013 from 7 locations. In this study, a total of 75 species of seaweeds (macroalgea) were identified, 17 of which were green algal species from 9 genera and 6 families; 18 were brown algal species from 7 genera and 4 families; and 40 species were red algae from 18 genera and 11 families. Sampling determined that Lengeh harbor, with 6 species, had the lowest diversity of green algae. Brown algae species diversity at Michael’s location was the highest with 10 species each; and Tahooneh had the lowest amount of species diversity with 5 species. Red algae species diversity at Michael’s location was the the highest with 28 species, and Sayeh Khosh had the lowest diversity with 13 species. The coverage data of macroalgae and the Ecological Evaluation Index indicated a high level of eutrophication for Sayeh Khosh, and Bostaneh. They are classified as zones with a bad and poor ecological status. It was proven that concentrations of biogenic elements and phytoplankton blooming were higher in these zones. The best values of the estimated metrics at Tahooneh and Michael’s could be explained with the good ecological conditions in those zones and the absence of pollution sources close to that transect. The values of the abundance of macroalgae and the Ecological Evaluation Index indicate moderate ecological conditions for Koohin, Lengeh and Chirooieh

    Predicting potential global and future distributions of the African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) using species distribution models.

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    This is the final version. Available from Nature Research via the DOI in this record. Data availability The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study will be available in the DRYAD repository, after the manuscript is accepted [https://datadryad.org/stash/share/t-EgQOweHgcOHQ_paK1ao6PQuRsnjkGCSh63_HD4n00] with DOI number [https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.sbcc2fr9b].Invasive species have historically been a problem derived from global trade and transport. To aid in the control and management of these species, species distribution models (SDMs) have been used to help predict possible areas of expansion. Our focal organism, the African Armyworm (AAW), has historically been known as an important pest species in Africa, occurring at high larval densities and causing outbreaks that can cause enormous economic damage to staple crops. The goal of this study is to map the AAW's present and potential distribution in three future scenarios for the region, and the potential global distribution if the species were to invade other territories, using 40 years of data on more than 700 larval outbreak reports from Kenya and Tanzania. The present distribution in East Africa coincides with its previously known distribution, as well as other areas of grassland and cropland, which are the host plants for this species. The different future climatic scenarios show broadly similar potential distributions in East Africa to the present day. The predicted global distribution shows areas where the AAW has already been reported, but also shows many potential areas in the Americas where, if transported, environmental conditions are suitable for AAW to thrive and where it could become an invasive species.Biotechnology & Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC

    Study of parasites occurrence and intensity in fishes of Anzali Lagoon

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    Tish survey prolonged from summer 2011 trough summer 2012. During this period 574 samples of different fish species were investigated for their parasites. Totally 30 species of parasites isolated of the fishes. Some of the isolated parasites are recorded for the first time in Iran. Rafidascaris acus Orientocreadium siluri, Silurotaenia siluri, Acanthocephalus lucii , Argulus foliaceus has recorded for the first time from European catfish, Silurus glanis, and Dactylogyrus inexpectatus has recorded for the first time from Gibel Carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, in Anzali wetland. Statistical comparison of parasites infections and intensity between the different area of Anzali wetland were done. Infection of Pike, Esox lucius, to Diplostomum spathaceum, Raphidascaris acus and Monogenean in western parts of wetland were significantly different from the Eastern and Central areas (p<0.05). So based on the data have concluded the eastern and central regions of the wetland are more polluted than the western part. Comparing the results of the present study with before ones showed that the composition of parasite species has been changed over time, while the prevalence, intensity and abundance of parasites have been increased. It may be due to changing environmental conditions such as increasing discharge of effluent, eutrophication of the wetland. This results accents to necessity of reconstruction of Anzali wetland with preference of eastern and central regions

    Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among women of reproductive age in iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) able to cause infection for an entire lifetime. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine seroprevalence of CMV among women of reproductive age in Iran. Methods: English and Persian databases such as Web of Science (WOS), PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, SID, Iran doc, Iran Medex, Magiran, and Medlib were searched (from 2008 to 2017) accurately using the keywords: Cytomegalovirus, Pregnant women or Pregnancy, Epidemiology, Prevalence and Iran. Results: Results of 15 studies with total samples of 5253 persons from 2008 to 2017 were combined and meta-analyzed. The pooled prevalence rate of IgG among women was estimated 90 (95 CI: 87-93). The highest prevalence rate of IgG was in Tehran, Rasht, Mashhad and Yasoj, all 100 (95 CI: 100-100), and the lowest prevalence was in Jahrom 0.62 (95 CI: 53-71). The overall prevalence rate of IgM among women was estimated at 0.06 (95 CI: 0.03-0.13). The highest prevalence rate of IgM was in Kerman 0.34 (95 CI: 0.29-0.39) and Mashhad 0.25 (95 CI: 0.2-0.31), and the lowest prevalence was in Yasoj 0 (95 CI: 0.00-0.00) Conclusion: The prevalence of immunity in Iran, is satisfactory. Nevertheless, to maintain and increase the level of immunity across the country, it is necessary to routinely screen the women of reproductive ages across the country. © 2019, Iranian Journal of Public Health. All rights reserved

    The three major axes of terrestrial ecosystem function.

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    The leaf economics spectrum1,2 and the global spectrum of plant forms and functions3 revealed fundamental axes of variation in plant traits, which represent different ecological strategies that are shaped by the evolutionary development of plant species2. Ecosystem functions depend on environmental conditions and the traits of species that comprise the ecological communities4. However, the axes of variation of ecosystem functions are largely unknown, which limits our understanding of how ecosystems respond as a whole to anthropogenic drivers, climate and environmental variability4,5. Here we derive a set of ecosystem functions6 from a dataset of surface gas exchange measurements across major terrestrial biomes. We find that most of the variability within ecosystem functions (71.8%) is captured by three key axes. The first axis reflects maximum ecosystem productivity and is mostly explained by vegetation structure. The second axis reflects ecosystem water-use strategies and is jointly explained by variation in vegetation height and climate. The third axis, which represents ecosystem carbon-use efficiency, features a gradient related to aridity, and is explained primarily by variation in vegetation structure. We show that two state-of-the-art land surface models reproduce the first and most important axis of ecosystem functions. However, the models tend to simulate more strongly correlated functions than those observed, which limits their ability to accurately predict the full range of responses to environmental changes in carbon, water and energy cycling in terrestrial ecosystems7,8