1,385 research outputs found

    Book Reviews

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    Telomere Length, Proviral Load and Neurologic Impairment in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2-Infected Subjects.

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    Short or damaged telomeres have been implicated in degenerative conditions. We hypothesized that analysis of telomere length (TL) in human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection and HTLV-associated neuropathy might provide clues to the etiology of HTLV-associated disease and viral dynamics. A subset of 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), and 45 seronegative subjects was selected from the larger HTLV Outcomes Study (HOST) cohort, matched on age, sex and race/ethnicity. Telomere-to-single-copy gene (T/S) ratio (a measure of TL) and HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral loads were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Vibration sensation measured by tuning fork during neurologic examinations performed as part of the HOST study allowed for an assessment of peripheral neuropathy. TL was compared between groups using t-tests, linear and logistic regression. Mean T/S ratio was 1.02 ± 0.16 in HTLV-1, 1.03 ± 0.17 in HTLV-2 and 0.99 ± 0.18 in HTLV seronegative subjects (p = 0.322). TL was not associated with HTLV-1 or -2 proviral load. Shorter TL was significantly associated with impaired vibration sense in the HTLV-2 positive group only. Overall, we found no evidence that telomere length was affected by chronic HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection. That TL was only associated with peripheral neuropathy in the HTLV-2-positive group is intriguing, but should be interpreted cautiously. Studies with larger sample size and telomere length measurement in lymphocyte subsets may clarify the relationship between TL and HTLV-infection

    TRAVEL MOBILITY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE DAILY LIVES OF COLLEGE STUDENTS

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    poster abstractTyson (2010) conducted research on 100 students using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Physical Activity Question-naire (PAQ). He concluded that students who engaged in more exercise had better mental health. Other studies have confirmed his findings, and have demonstrated how a student’s well-being is related to their success in build-ing relationships and maintaining academic studies. On the other hand, stu-dents that do not engage in physical activity often experience negative well-being, including difficulty concentrating, fatigue, and psychological disorders. The objectives of this study are to determine if the strength of association between daily emotion and activity participation is similar across college stu-dents, and how physical activity and travel mobility relate to well-being. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), developed by Csikszentmihalyi, Larson, and Prescott (1977) will be used in conjunction with an accelerometer and global positioning system (GPS) to collect data from a sample of (n=24) full-time students over a period of seven days from 9:00am-9:00pm. Subjects will be randomly signaled seven times a day, at which time they will com-plete several Likert-type statements and semantic deferential items in order to measure their perceptions of well-being. To date, the combined methodo-logical use of ESM, GPS and accelerometry has not been conducted on col-lege students. Travel mobility and physical activity will be recorded using the Garmin Forerunner 410 GPS and the Actigraph accelerometer. Data collec-tion phase is incomplete. It is expected that the strength of association be-tween daily emotion and activity participation will be consistent across col-lege students, and physical activity and travel mobility will contribute to stu-dent’s well-being. It is also expected that students with high levels of physi-cal activity and travel mobility will report an overall sense of happiness and increased well-being as compared to those with low levels of physical activity and travel mobility

    759–5 Use of an Interactive Electronic Whiteboard to Teach Clinical Cardiology Decision Analysis to Medical Students

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    We used innovative state-of-the-art computer and collaboration technologies to teach first-year medical students an analytic methodology to solve difficult clinical cardiology problems to make informed medical decisions. Clinical examples included the decision to administer thrombolytic therapy considering the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, and activity recommendations for athletes at risk for sudden death. Students received instruction on the decision-analytic approach which integrates pathophysiology, treatment efficacy, diagnostic test interpretation, health outcomes, patient preferences, and cost-effectiveness into a decision-analytic model.The traditional environment of a small group and blackboard was significantly enhanced by using an electronic whiteboard, the Xerox LiveBoard™. The LiveBoard features an 80486-based personal computer, large (3’×4’) display, and wireless pens for input. It allowed the integration of decision-analytic software, statistical software, digital slides, and additional media. We developed TIDAL (Team Interactive Decision Analysis in the Large-screen environment), a software package to interactively construct decision trees, calculate expected utilities, and perform one- and two-way sensitivity analyses using pen and gesture inputs. The Live Board also allowed the novel incorporation of Gambler, a utility assessment program obtained from the New England Medical Center. Gambler was used to obtain utilities for outcomes such as non-disabling hemorrhagic stroke. The interactive nature of the LiveBoard allowed real-time decision model development by the class, followed by instantaneous calculation of expected utilities and sensitivity analyses. The multimedia aspect and interactivity were conducive to extensive class participation.Ten out of eleven students wanted decision-analytic software available for use during their clinical years and all students would recommend the course to next year's students. We plan to experiment with the electronic collaboration features of this technology and allow groups separated by time or space to collaborate on decisions and explore the models created

    Sampling a Littoral Fish Assemblage: Comparison of Small-Mesh Fyke Netting and Boat Electrofishing

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    We compared small-mesh (4-mm) fyke netting and boat electrofishing for sampling a littoral fish assemblage in Muskegon Lake, Michigan. We hypothesized that fyke netting selects for small-bodied fishes and electrofishing selects for large-bodied fishes. Three sites were sampled during May (2004 and 2005), July (2005 only), and September (2004 and 2005). We found that the species composition of captured fish differed considerably between fyke netting and electrofishing based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). Species strongly associated with fyke netting (based on NMDS and relative abundance) included the brook silverside Labidesthes sicculus, banded killifish Fundulus diaphanus, round goby Neogobius melanostomus, mimic shiner Notropis volucellus, and bluntnose minnow Pimephales notatus, whereas species associated with electrofishing included the Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, catostomids (Moxostoma spp. and Catostomus spp.), freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens, walleye Sander vitreus, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, and common carp Cyprinus carpio. The total length of fish captured by electrofishing was 12.8 cm (95% confidence interval ¼ 5.5– 17.2 cm) greater than that of fish captured by fyke netting. Size selectivity of the gears contributed to differences in species composition of the fish captured, supporting our initial hypothesis. Thus, small-mesh fyke nets and boat electrofishers provided complementary information on a littoral fish assemblage. Our results support use of multiple gear types in monitoring and research surveys of fish assemblages. Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007, Originally published in the North American Journal of Fisheries Management 27: 825-831, 2007

    Inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier protects from excitotoxic neuronal death.

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    Glutamate is the dominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, but under conditions of metabolic stress it can accumulate to excitotoxic levels. Although pharmacologic modulation of excitatory amino acid receptors is well studied, minimal consideration has been given to targeting mitochondrial glutamate metabolism to control neurotransmitter levels. Here we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) protects primary cortical neurons from excitotoxic death. Reductions in mitochondrial pyruvate uptake do not compromise cellular energy metabolism, suggesting neuronal metabolic flexibility. Rather, MPC inhibition rewires mitochondrial substrate metabolism to preferentially increase reliance on glutamate to fuel energetics and anaplerosis. Mobilizing the neuronal glutamate pool for oxidation decreases the quantity of glutamate released upon depolarization and, in turn, limits the positive-feedback cascade of excitotoxic neuronal injury. The finding links mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism to glutamatergic neurotransmission and establishes the MPC as a therapeutic target to treat neurodegenerative diseases characterized by excitotoxicity

    Planning ahead in Missouri's dairy industry

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    Text of caption on page 6 is cut off due to tight binding."Dairying originated as a way men could turn supplies of forage into profitable human food by applying their skill and labor to the management of herds of milking animals. This objective still applies-but how the means have changed! Methods of getting milk out of a cow, to and through the market, and into the kitchens of consumers have gone from hand style to "untouched by human hand" marvels of mechanization. Even the cow, the factory that does the conversion, has been modified into a manufacturing machine that grows more efficient and productive each year. Average production per cow has climbed from 4,218 to 8,513 pounds per year in the past 40 years. Missouri cows haven't produced as well, but have climbed from 3,300 to 7,400 pounds in the same period. That's one of the problems we need to correct in the next few years to stay in competition. Progress has been slow in increasing forage yields but that's coming in for attention now. This publication reviews where Missouri's dairy industry stands now, where we're headed if present trends continue., and what needs to be done to improve the position of dairying. Ten and 20 years from now we want to be in the forefront."--Page 1.Prepared by O.E. Allen, Edward J. Constien, J.E. Edmondson, Alfred Lane, W.J. Murphy, Leroy Peters, Alva L. Preston, Jr., Edward R. Wiggins, Fred H. Meinershagen (Chairman

    Spitzer IRAC observations of newly-discovered planetary nebulae from the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg H-alpha Planetary Nebula Project

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    We compare H-alpha, radio continuum, and Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) images of 58 planetary nebulae (PNe) recently discovered by the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbo- urg H-alpha PN Project (MASH) of the SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey. Using InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data we define the IR colors of PNe and demonstrate good isolation between these colors and those of many other types of astronomical object. The only substantive contamination of PNe in the color-color plane we illustrate is due to YSOs. However, this ambiguity is readily resolved by the unique optical characteristics of PNe and their environs. We also examine the relationships between optical and MIR morphologies from 3.6 to 8.0um and explore the ratio of mid-infrared (MIR) to radio nebular fluxes, which is a valuable discriminant between thermal and nonthermal emission. MASH emphasizes late evolutionary stages of PNe compared with previous catalogs, enabling study of the changes in MIR and radio flux that attend the aging process. Spatially integrated MIR energy distributions were constructed for all MASH PNe observed by the GLIMPSE Legacy Project, using the H-alpha morphologies to establish the dimensions for the calculations of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), IRAC, and radio continuum (from the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope and the Very Large Array) flux densities. The ratio of IRAC 8.0-um to MSX 8.3-um flux densities provides a measure of the absolute diffuse calibration of IRAC at 8.0 um. We independently confirm the aperture correction factor to be applied to IRAC at 8.0um to align it with the diffuse calibration of MSX. The result agrees with the recommendations of the Spitzer Science Center and with results from a parallel study of HII regions. These PNe probe the diffuse calibration of IRAC on a spatial scale of 9-77 arcsec.Comment: 48 pages, LaTeX (aastex), incl. 18 PostScript (eps) figures and 3 tables. Accepted by Astrophysical Journa
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