62 research outputs found

    Physiochemical characterizations of nanoemulsions.

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    <p>H/C: Six heating-cooling cycles. Cent.: centrifugation at 3,000 rpm for 30min. Freeze-Thaw: Three freeze-thaw cycles. All data were analyzed by Duncan’s multiple range test using SAS software package. The different letters indicate a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.01).</p><p>Physiochemical characterizations of nanoemulsions.</p

    Inhibitory zone diameter of nano-formulations of Nano-1-Amp+Brij 35 and Nano-2-Amp+Brij 35.

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    <p>All data were analyzed by Duncan’s multiple range tests using SAS software package. Different letters represented significantly differences at the level of 0.05 (p <i>≤</i> 0.05).</p

    Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome of Citrus Plants in Response to ‘<i>Candidatus</i> Liberibacter asiaticus’-Infection and Antibiotic Treatments

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    <div><p>The bacterial microbiomes of citrus plants were characterized in response to ‘<i>Candidatus</i> Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm) by Phylochip-based metagenomics. The results revealed that 7,407 of over 50,000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in 53 phyla were detected in citrus leaf midribs using the PhyloChip™ G3 array, of which five phyla were dominant, <i>Proteobacteria</i> (38.7%), <i>Firmicutes</i> (29.0%), <i>Actinobacteria</i> (16.1%), <i>Bacteroidetes</i> (6.2%) and <i>Cyanobacteria</i> (2.3%). The OTU62806, representing ‘<i>Candidatus</i> Liberibacter’, was present with a high titer in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Gm at 100 mg/L and in the water-treated control (CK<sub>1</sub>). However, the Las bacterium was not detected in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Amp at 1.0 g/L or in plants graft-inoculated with Las-free scions (CK<sub>2</sub>). The PhyloChip array demonstrated that more OTUs, at a higher abundance, were detected in the Gm-treated plants than in the other treatment and the controls. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 23 OTUs from the <i>Achromobacter</i> spp. and 12 OTUs from the <i>Methylobacterium</i> spp. were more abundant in CK<sub>2</sub> and CK<sub>1</sub>, respectively. Ten abundant OTUs from the <i>Stenotrophomonas</i> spp. were detected only in the Amp-treatment. These results provide new insights into microbial communities that may be associated with the progression of citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and the potential effects of antibiotics on the disease and microbial ecology.</p></div

    Comparison of several parameters between asymptomatic and symptomatic cuticles.

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    <p>All data were analyzed by Duncan’s multiple range test using SAS software package. Different letters represent significant difference at a level of p <i>≤</i> 0.05.</p><p><sup>c</sup> Fold-change in pectinase activity of cuticles isolated from HLB-asymptomatic and symptomatic leaves.</p><p><sup>d</sup> Inhibitory zone diameter of cuticles treated with a 500 mg/L ampicillin solution.</p><p>Comparison of several parameters between asymptomatic and symptomatic cuticles.</p

    Ct value detected by qPCR in HLB-affected citrus after foliar spraying by nano-formulations.

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    <p>Ct value detected by qPCR in HLB-affected citrus after foliar spraying by nano-formulations.</p

    <i>Ca.</i> L. asiaticus (Las) and its transmission in grapefruit graft-inoculated with Las-infected lemon scions treated with ampicillin at 1.0 g/L (Amp), gentamicin at 100 mg/L (Gm), or water (disease control, CK<sub>1</sub>) as well as grafted with the Las-free lemon scions (healthy control, CK<sub>2</sub>).

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    §<p>Data were analyzed by a generalized linear mixed model using the SAS procedure GLIMMIX. Differences among treatment levels were determined with the LINES option of the LSMEANS statement. Different letter showed the significant difference at 0.05 levels (<i>Pr</i>≤0.05).</p

    Bacterial community of leaf midribs of scions.

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    <p><b>A</b>) Composition and <b>B</b>) relative abundance of the bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) present in leaf midribs of scions from grapefruit rootstocks grafted with HLB-affected lemon scions treated with ampicillin (Amp), gentamicin (Gm) and water (disease control; CK<sub>1</sub>). The healthy plants were grafted using Las-free lemon scions (healthy control; CK<sub>2</sub>).</p

    Huanglongbing symptoms of the inoculated plants.

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    <p>Healthy grapefruit rootstocks graft-inoculated with HLB-affected lemon scions treated with ampicillin at a concentration of 1.0 g/L (<b>Amp</b>), gentamicin at a concentration of 100 mg/L (<b>Gm</b>), and a water control (disease control, <b>CK<sub>1</sub></b>); The healthy plants were graft-inoculated with Las-free lemon scions (healthy control, <b>CK<sub>2</sub></b>).</p

    Distribution of the bacterial OTUs in response to antibiotic treatments.

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    <p>In the Venn diagram, the numbers in parentheses represent the number of bacterial OTUs that occurred in each antibiotic treatment [ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm)], disease controls (CK<sub>1</sub>), healthy control (CK<sub>2</sub>) and their intersections. Pie charts A to G correspond to the appropriately labeled Venn diagram areas (A<sub>1</sub> to G<sub>1</sub> for the Amp treatment and A<sub>2</sub> to G<sub>2</sub> for the Gm treatment) and show families that contained over 1% of the total OTUs in each area. In pie charts A to G, the names of the families are followed by their frequencies as a percentage (%).</p

    Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome in Huanglongbing-Affected Citrus Treated with Thermotherapy and Sulfonamide Antibiotics

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    <div><p>Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry. In previous studies, sulfonamide antibiotics and heat treatment suppressed ‘<i>Candidatus</i> Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), but did not completely eliminate the Las. Furthermore, there are few reports studying the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics. In this study, combinations of heat (45°C or 40°C) and sulfonamide treatment (sulfathiazole sodium–STZ, or sulfadimethoxine sodium—SDX) were applied to HLB-affected citrus. The bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus following thermotherapy and/or chemotherapy was characterized by PhyloChip<sup>TM</sup>G3-based metagenomics. Our results showed that the combination of thermotherapy at 45°C and chemotherapy with STZ and SDX was more effective against HLB than thermotherapy alone, chemotherapy alone, or a combination of thermotherapy at 40°C and chemotherapy. The PhyloChip<sup>TM</sup>G3-based results indicated that 311 empirical Operational Taxonomic Units (eOTUs) were detected in 26 phyla. <i>Cyanobacteria</i> (18.01%) were dominant after thermo-chemotherapy. Thermotherapy at 45°C decreased eOTUs (64.43%) in leaf samples, compared with thermotherapy at 40°C (73.96%) or without thermotherapy (90.68%) and it also reduced bacterial family biodiversity. The eOTU in phylum <i>Proteobacteria</i> was reduced significantly and eOTU_28, representing “<i>Candidatus</i> Liberibacter,” was not detected following thermotherapy at 45°C. Following antibiotic treatment with SDX and STZ, there was enhanced abundance of specific eOTUs belonging to the families <i>Streptomycetaceae</i>, <i>Desulfobacteraceae</i>, <i>Chitinophagaceae</i>, and <i>Xanthomonadaceae</i>, which may be implicated in increased resistance to plant pathogens. Our study further develops an integrated strategy for combating HLB, and also provides new insight into the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics.</p></div
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