18 research outputs found

    Unusual finding of endocervical-like mucinous epithelium in continuity with urothelium in endocervicosis of the urinary bladder

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    Endocervicosis in the urinary bladder is a rare benign condition. We present a case in a 37-year-old woman with classical clinical and pathological features of endocervicosis. The unusual observation of endocervical-like mucinous epithelium in continuity with the urothelium in addition to fully developed endocervicosis prompted immunohistochemical profiling of the case using antibodies to cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, CK19, CK7, CK5/6, CK20), HBME-1, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) to assess the relationship of the surface mucinous and endocervicosis glandular epithelia. The surface mucinous epithelium, urothelium and endocervicosis glands were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK7 and CK19 while CK20 was only expressed by few urothelial umbrella cells. The surface mucinous epithelium was CK5/6 and HBME-1 immunonegative but showed presence of ER and PR. This was in contrast to the urothelium's expression of CK5/6 but not ER and PR. In comparison, endocervicosis glands expressed HBME-1, unlike the surface mucinous epithelium. The endocervicosis epithelium also demonstrated the expected presence of ER and PR and CK5/6 immunonegativity. The slightly differing immunohistochemical phenotypes of the surface mucinous and morphologically similar endocervicosis glandular epithelium is interesting and requires further clarification to its actual nature. The patient has remained well and without evidence of disease 18-months following transurethral resection of the lesion

    Loss of PTEN expression is associated with IGFBP2 expression, younger age, and late stage in triple-negative breast cancer

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    © American Society for Clinical Pathology. Objectives: To investigate the association between PTEN loss and IGFBP2 expression in a series of triple-negative breast cancers and to relate this expression to basal cytokeratin expression and clinicopathologic features. Methods: One hundred and one formalin-fixed and paraffin-processed triple-negative breast cancer cases from the University of Malaya Medical Centre were tested immunohistochemically for cytokeratins 5/6 and 14, PTEN, and IGFBP2. The resulting slides were scored for proportion and intensity of staining. Results: Loss of tumor nuclear and cytoplasmic staining for PTEN occurred in 48.3% of cases and was significantly associated with younger age at diagnosis (47 years compared with 57 years in those without PTEN loss; P = .005). Independent predictors of PTEN loss were late stage at presentation ( P = .026), cytokeratin 5/6 positivity ( P = .028), and IGFBP2 expression ( P = .042). High levels of IGFBP2 expression were seen in 32% of cases; an independent predictor of high levels was cytokeratin 14 negativity ( P = .005). PTEN loss and high levels of IGFBP2 expression were associated with poorer survival, but neither of these trends was significant. Conclusions: PTEN loss is a frequent event in triple-negative breast cancers and is significantly associated with younger age at onset of breast cancer, late stage, and IGFBP2 expression

    Medulloblastoblastoma with excessive nodularity: Typical imaging appearance

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    Medulloblastoma is the most common form of childhood primary brain tumour arising from the cerebellar vermis. It is classified as WHO grade IV embryonal tumours and currently at least four histological variants have been established. Only few case reports been published on the imaging features of the medulloblastoma with excessive nodularity variant. We report the MRI features of a rare case of medulloblastoma with excessive nodularity in a child which is confirmed by histopathology

    Malignant Transformation of a Rosette-Forming Glioneuronal Tumor with IDH1 Mutation: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Background: Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (World Health Organization grade I) is considered as a benign tumor with very low potential for progression. The potential for malignant transformation of this tumor is not known and has never been reported before in literature. Case Description: We report a 42-year-old man, diagnosed with rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle with a positive isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, progressed to glioblastoma after 6 years from diagnosis. We discuss the clinical history, radiological findings, and histopathological characteristic with immunohistochemistry findings observed in this unique case. Conclusions: Despite being acceptable as benign, based on our observations in this case, there is a potential for malignant transformation of rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor. The role of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation leading to malignant transformation could not be established as our finding is novel and further prospective studies are required to prove this association. Key words: Glioblastoma IDH mutant, IDH 1 mutation, Malignant transformation, RGN

    Expression of osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 proteins in vascular instability in brain arteriovenous malformation

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    Background Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 are Osteopontin (OPN) dependent molecules implicated in the destabilization of blood vessels. OPN and MMPs have been studied in brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) patients’ tissues and blood samples before intervention. In this study, we compared the serum level of these markers before and after treatment, as well as assessed their protein expressions in BAVM tissues to evaluate their roles in this disease. Methodology Serum samples from six BAVM patients and three control subjects were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for OPN. A total of 10 BAVM patients and five control subjects were analyzed using Multiplex ELISA for MMPs. A total of 16 BAVM tissue samples and two normal brain tissue samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Result MMP-2 and -9 were significantly higher in the serum of BAVM patients before and after treatment than in control patients. There were no significant differences of OPN and MMP-9 serum level in BAVM patients before and after treatment. MMP-2 showed a significant elevation after the treatment. Expression of OPN, MMP-2 and -9 proteins were seen in endothelial cells, perivascular cells and brain parenchyma of BAVM tissues. Conclusion Findings revealed that the level of MMP-2 and -9 in the serum correlated well with the expression in BAVM tissues in several cases. Knockdown studies will be required to determine the relationships and mechanisms of action of these markers in the near future. In addition, studies will be required to investigate the expression of these markers’ potential applications as primary medical therapy targets for BAVM patients

    A rare case of perivascular epithelioid cell tumour metastases to the brain

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    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour is a rare mesenchymal tumour with distinct immunohistochemical profile. While it is known to occur in various anatomical sites, the central nervous system had always been a protected site for primary or secondary perivascular epithelioid cell tumours. We describe a 61-year-old lady who presented with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, 3 months after the resection of duodenal and thoracic tumours which were histologically consistent with perivascular epithelioid cell tumour. She was investigated and then subsequently subjected to resection of two metastatic intracranial lesions. The radiological, intraoperative as well as histopathological findings of the metastatic lesions are discussed. Metastatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumour of the brain is extremely rare. However, patients who are stratified as high risk for recurrence or metastases should undergo an early magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography of the brain in addition to a whole-body positron emission tomography scan, to allow for early detection and management of these tumours

    Anti-Cancer Effects of Synergistic Drug–Bacterium Combinations on Induced Breast Cancer in BALB/c Mice

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    Cancer development and progression are extremely complex due to the alteration of various genes and pathways. In most cases, multiple agents are required to control cancer progression. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a mouse model, the synergistic interactions of anti-cancer agents, 1′-S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), and cisplatin (CDDP) in double and triple combinations to treat chemo-sensitize and immune-sensitize breast cancer. Changes in tumor volume and body weight were monitored. Organs were harvested and stained using hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological assessment. Milliplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to determine cytokine levels, while immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted on tumor biopsies to verify systemic drug effects. In vivo mouse models showed tumor regression with maintenance of regular body weight for all the different treatment regimens. IHC results provided conclusive evidence indicating that combination regimens were able to down-regulate nuclear factor kappa-B activation and reduce the expression of its regulated pro-inflammatory proteins. Reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) levels were observed when using the triple combination, which indicated that the synergistic drug combination was able to significantly control cancer progression. In conclusion, ACA, MIP, and CDDP together serve as promising candidates for further development and for subsequent clinical trials against estrogen-sensitive breast cancer. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

    Carbonic anhydrase IX immunohistochemistry has potential to predict renal cell carcinoma outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analyses

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    INTRODUCTION: Tissue biomarker carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is purported to have prognostic value for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but contradicting findings from previous studies have also been documented. This study aims to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the role of CAIX in RCC disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, online searches of multiple databases were performed to retrieve articles from their inception until December 2017. Inclusion criteria included all English-based original articles of immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies investigating CAIX expression in human RCC tissue. Four articles were finally selected for meta-analysis with a total of 1964 patients. Standard meta-analysis methods were applied to evaluate the role of CAIX in RCC prognosis. The relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were recorded for the association between biomarker and prognosis, and data were analysed using MedCalc statistical software. RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed that high CAIX expression was associated with low tumour stage (RR 0.90%, 95% CI 0.849-0.969, p= 0.004), low tumour grade (RR 0.835%, 95% CI 0.732-0.983, p= 0.028), absence of nodal involvement (RR 0.814%, 95% CI 0.712-0.931, p= 0.003) and better ECOS-PS index (RR 0.888%, 95% CI 0.818-0.969, p= 0.007). The high tissue CAIX expression in RCC is hence an indication of an early malignancy with a potential to predict favourable disease progression and outcome. CONCLUSION: The measurement of this marker may be beneficial to determine the course of the illness. It is hoped that CAIX can be developed as a specific tissue biomarker for RCC in the near future

    Development and Evaluation of 1′-Acetoxychavicol Acetate (ACA)-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Prostate Cancer Therapy

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    1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) extracted from the rhizomes of Alpinia conchigera Griff (Zingiberaceae) has been shown to deregulate the NF-ĸB signaling pathway and induce apoptosis-mediated cell death in many cancer types. However, ACA is a hydrophobic ester, with poor solubility in an aqueous medium, limited bioavailability, and nonspecific targeting in vivo. To address these problems, ACA was encapsulated in a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) anchored with plerixafor octahydrochloride (AMD3100) to promote targeted delivery towards C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)-expressing prostate cancer cells. The NLC was prepared using the melt and high sheer homogenization method, and it exhibited ideal physico-chemical properties, successful encapsulation and modification, and sustained rate of drug release. Furthermore, it demonstrated time-based and improved cellular uptake, and improved cytotoxic and anti-metastatic properties on PC-3 cells in vitro. Additionally, the in vivo animal tumor model revealed significant anti-tumor efficacy and reduction in pro-tumorigenic markers in comparison to the placebo, without affecting the weight and physiological states of the nude mice. Overall, ACA-loaded NLC with AMD3100 surface modification was successfully prepared with evidence of substantial anti-cancer efficacy. These results suggest the potential use of AMD3100-modified NLCs as a targeting carrier for cytotoxic drugs towards CXCR4-expressing cancer cells

    Acute and 28-day sub-acute intravenous toxicity studies of 1’-S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate in rats

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    1′-S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) has been previously reported to reduce tumor volume in nude mice, at an effective dose of 1.56 mg/kg body weight. However, the detailed toxicological profile for ACA has not yet been performed. Herein, we investigated the toxicity of intravenous administration of ACA in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, both acutely (with single doses of 2.00, 4.00 and 6.66 mg/kg body weight, for 14 days), and sub-acutely (with weekly injections of 0.66, 1.33, and 2.22 mg/kg, for 28 days). In both toxicity studies, treatment with ACA did not affect behavior, food/water intake or body weight, nor did it induce any changes in clinically relevant hematological and biochemical parameters or mortality, suggesting that the LD 50 of ACA was higher than 6.66 mg/kg body weight, regardless of sex. Sub-acutely, there was however, mild focal inflammation of kidneys and lobular hepatitis, but these were not associated with significant functional adverse effects. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for intravenous administration of ACA in the present 28-day sub-acute study was 2.22 mg/kg body weight, in both male and female rats. These findings provide useful information regarding the safety of ACA use in a healthy, non-tumor-bearing rat model
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