579 research outputs found

    An Eco-Benign Biomimetic Approach for the Synthesis of Ni/ZnO Nanocomposite: Photocatalytic and Antioxidant Activities

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    With the increasing demand for wastewater treatment and multidrug resistance among pathogens, it was necessary to develop an efficient catalyst with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial applications. The present study proposes a facile and green strategy for synthesizing zinc oxide (ZnO) decorated nickel (Ni) nanomaterials. The synthesized Ni/ZnO nanocomposite displays a high crystallinity and spherical morphology, which was systematically characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV-visible spectroscopy, EDX, HRTEM, and XPS techniques. In addition, the bacteriological tests indicated that Ni/ZnO nanocomposite exhibits potent antibacterial activity against human pathogens, i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The inhibition zone observed in light and dark conditions for E. coli was 16 (±0.3) mm and 8 (±0.4) mm, respectively, which confirms the high efficacy of the nanocomposite in the presence of light compared to dark conditions. The detailed inhibition mechanism of said bacterium and damage were also studied through fluorescence spectroscopy and SEM analysis, respectively. Evaluation of antioxidant activity based on free radical scavenging activity revealed that the Ni/ZnO nanocomposite effectively scavenges DPPH. In the photocatalytic performance, the Ni/ZnO nanocomposite exhibited a remarkable degradation ability under the optimized condition, which was attributed to their controllable size, high surface area, and exceptional morphology. Good selectivity, high photodegradation, and antibacterial activities and satisfactory hemolytic behavior of the as-prepared nanocomposite make them able to become a potential candidate for superior biological performance and environmental remediation

    Effects of different levels of egg protein replacement in weaned diets on hematology, kidney functions, and immunity biomarkers

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    Abstract Eggs are good sources of nutrients essential for the growth and development of infants. Introducing eggs as a weaning food can improve dietary adequacy in infants at risk for protein energy malnutrition (PEM). To evaluate the current objective, 72 pups (36 males and 36 females) were used to calculate the impact of various egg protein levels on blood parameters. Nonisonitrogenous and isocaloric pellet diets were offered to pups for 28 days using nine pups with three replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD). The water intake and ad libitum diet were offered to weaned pups. The pups were randomly assigned to different concentrations of diet, which contained WF0, control diet, 14% of soybean protein; WF1, 14% of egg protein; WF2, 16% of egg protein; and WF3, 18% of egg protein, respectively. After weaning, the intraperitoneal injection with the drug (xylazine with ketamine) was used to anesthetize before killing on the 28th day. Blood samples were used to measure the blood metabolites. The results indicated that the concentration of red blood cells, white blood cells, serum triglycerides, and serum protein was significantly (p ≤ .05) increased in pups fed with high egg protein levels compared to the control. The highest platelet count was observed in the pups fed WF3 diet. In contrast, the amount of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase was significantly (p ≤ .05) reduced with increasing the level of egg protein in the diets of weaned pups. Immunity biomarkers (immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin M) and kidney functions (creatinine and blood urine nitrogen) were nonsignificantly (p ≤ .05) increased in the pups fed a high level of protein due to a high biological value of soybean protein. Moreover, the concentration of immunoglobulin E in all pups remained unchanged. Egg protein in infant formula feed can be used for the growth and development of infants

    Topic Modeling based text classification regarding Islamophobia using Word Embedding and Transformers Techniques

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    Islamophobia is a rising area of concern in the current era where Muslims face discrimination and receive negative perspectives towards their religion, Islam. Islamophobia is a type of racism that is being practiced by individuals, groups, and organizations worldwide. Moreover, the ease of access to social media platforms and their augmented usage has also contributed to spreading hate speech, false information, and negative opinions about Islam. In this research study, we focused to detect Islamophobic textual content shared on various social media platforms. We explored the state-of-the-art techniques being followed in text data mining and Natural Language Processing (NLP). Topic modelling algorithm Latent Dirichlet Allocation is used to find top topics. Then, word embedding approaches such as Word2Vec and Global Vectors for word representation (GloVe) are used as feature extraction techniques. For text classification, we utilized modern text analysis techniques of transformers-based Deep Learning algorithms named Bidirectional Encoders Representation from Transformers (BERT) and Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (GPT). For results comparison, we conducted an extensive empirical analysis of Machine Learning algorithms and Deep Learning using conventional textual features such as the Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency, N-gram, and Bag of words (BoW). The empirical based results evaluated using standard performance evaluation measures show that the proposed approach effectively detects the textual content related to Islamophobia. In the corpus of the study under Machine Learning models Support Vector Machine (SVM) performed best with an F1 score of 91%. The Transformer based core NLP models and the Deep Learning model Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) when combined with GloVe performed best among all the techniques except SVM with BoW. GPT, SVM when combined with BoW and BERT yielded the best F1 score of 92%, 92% and 91.9% respectively, while CNN performed slightly poor with an F1 score of 91%

    The global impact of tobacco control policies on smokeless tobacco use : a systematic review

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    Background Smokeless tobacco (ST), used by more than 300 million people globally, results in substantial morbidity and mortality. For ST control, many countries have adopted policies beyond the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which has been instrumental in reducing smoking prevalence. The impact of these ST related policies (FCTC and non-FCTC) on ST remains unclear. Methods We systematically searched 11 electronic databases and grey literature from 2005 to September 2021 in English and key south Asian languages, to summarise ST policies and their impact. Two reviewers independently screened articles; data were extracted after standardisation . Quality of studies was appraised using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Outcomes for impact assessment included ST prevalence, uptake, cessation, and health. Due to substantial heterogeneity in the descriptions of policies and outcomes, data were descriptively and narratively synthesised. Findings We identified 252 eligible studies describing ST policies. Fifty-seven countries had policies targeting ST of which 17 had non-FCTC policies for ST (e.g., spitting bans). Eighteen studies evaluated the impact. These were of variable quality (6 strong, 7 moderate and 5 weak) and reported mainly on prevalence of ST use. The body of work evaluating FCTC-based policy initiatives found that these were associated with reductions in ST prevalence: between -4.4% to -30.3% for taxation and -22.2% to -70.9% for multi-faceted policies. Two studies evaluating the non-FCTC policy of sales bans reported significant reductions in ST sale (-6.4%) and use (-17.6%); one however reported an increased trend in ST use in the youth after total sales ban, likely due to cross-border smuggling. The one study reporting on cessation found 13.3% increase in quit attempts in those exposed (47.5%) to FCTC policy: Education, communication, training, and public awareness, compared to non-exposed (34.2%). Interpretation Many countries have implemented ST control policies, including those that extend beyond FCTC. The available evidence suggests that taxation and multifaceted policy initiatives are associated with meaningful reductions in ST use

    Alleviation of chromium toxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) using salicylic acid and Azospirillum brasilense

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    Abstract Background Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil poses a serious hazard because it hinders plant growth, which eventually reduces crop yield and raises the possibility of a food shortage. Cr’s harmful effects interfere with crucial plant functions like photosynthesis and respiration, reducing energy output, causing oxidative stress, and interfering with nutrient intake. In this study, the negative effects of Cr on mung beans are examined, as well as investigate the effectiveness of Azospirillum brasilense and salicylic acid in reducing Cr-induced stress. Results We investigated how different Cr levels (200, 300, and 400 mg/kg soil) affected the growth of mung bean seedlings with the use of Azospirillum brasilense and salicylic acid. Experiment was conducted with randomized complete block design with 13 treatments having three replications. Significant growth retardation was caused by Cr, as were important factors like shoot and root length, plant height, dry weight, and chlorophyll content significantly reduced. 37.15% plant height, 71.85% root length, 57.09% chlorophyll contents, 82.34% crop growth rate was decreased when Cr toxicity was @ 50 µM but this decrease was remain 27.80%, 44.70%, 38.97% and 63.42%, respectively when applied A. brasilense and Salicylic acid in combine form. Use of Azospirillum brasilense and salicylic acid significantly increased mung bean seedling growth (49%) and contributed to reducing the toxic effect of Cr stress (34% and 14% in plant height, respectively) due to their beneficial properties in promoting plant growth. Conclusions Mung bean seedlings are severely damaged by Cr contamination, which limits their growth and physiological characteristics. Using Azospirillum brasilense and salicylic acid together appears to be a viable way to combat stress brought on by Cr and promote general plant growth. Greater nutrient intake, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and greater root growth are examples of synergistic effects. This strategy has the ability to reduce oxidative stress brought on by chromium, enhancing plant resistance to adverse circumstances. The study offers new perspectives on sustainable practices that hold potential for increasing agricultural output and guaranteeing food security

    Exploring organizational management of extrovert school leadership

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    The study aimed at determining the personality traits of extroversion and introversion of school leadership and evaluating their organizational management in Federal Government Educational Institutions (FGEIs). A quantitative research design along with a positivist paradigm was followed. The total population consisted of 68 school principals and 592 teachers of FGEIs in the Gujranwala, Fazaia, and Lahore Regions from which 54 principals and 381 teachers were selected using a random sampling technique. Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) was deployed to collect information about personality traits and data regarding organizational management, the researchers used a self-developed questionnaire. Pearson correlation r and t-tests were deployed for inferential stats. The results showed that extrovert school leaders perform their duties well as they hold a clear concept of the vision and mission of the organization, set up an accepted procedure to plan short-term and long-term goals, share responsibilities with all stakeholders following their skills, and ensure the smooth functioning of the school with the help of all stakeholders. In comparison, introverted school principals show less interest in the organizational management of their schools. Moreover, organizational management of school leadership has a positive correlation with the personality trait of extroversion and a significant difference can be seen in organizational management of an extrovert and an introvert school principal. It was recommended that the performance indicators and standards of school principals should be effectively communicated to school leadership. Introvert school leadership should be provided with the necessary psychological training to reduce this shortcoming of personality

    Geographical Ddistribution of neurosurgeons and emergency neurosurgical services in Pakistan

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    Background and objective: According to the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), a minimum neurosurgery workforce density should be 1 per 200,000 population for optimum access to neurosurgical care. Pakistan lags behind in the number of neurosurgeons, and disproportionate geographical distribution further increases disparity. Our objective was to geographically map the density of neurosurgeons and emergency neurosurgical services (ENS) in Pakistan. Methods: This survey was circulated among 307 neurosurgeons. Data were analyzed using SPSS v21. The number of neurosurgeons and ENS were plotted on the population density map using ArcGIS Pro 3.0.0 software. Results: Three hundred and seven neurosurgeons working at 74 centers responded to our survey (93.3% coverage). The current density of neurosurgeons in Pakistan is 0.14/100,000. The 2 more populous provinces, Punjab and Sindh, have 42.3% (130) and 35.8% (110) neurosurgeons, respectively. They also housed nearly 3 quarters of all the neurosurgery centers in urban districts. Karachi and Lahore accommodate 135 (44%) of all the country\u27s neurosurgeons, having 0.29 and 0.51 neurosurgeons/100,000 respectively. Management of traumatic brain injury is offered at 65 centers (87.8%). Nearly all centers are equipped with computed tomography (CT) scan machine (74; 97%), but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facility is available at 55 (72%) centers and 37 (49%) centers have angiography suites. Sixty nine centers (93.2%) have C-arm fluoroscopes available. Conclusions: The geographical mapping of neurosurgeons and neurosurgical facilities is highly skewed towards urban centers, increasing disparity in access to timely neurosurgical emergency services. Four times more neurosurgeons are required in Pakistan to bridge the gap in neurosurgical workforc

    Global, regional, and national incidence of six major immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: findings from the global burden of disease study 2019Research in context

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    Summary: Background: The causes for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are diverse and the incidence trends of IMIDs from specific causes are rarely studied. The study aims to investigate the pattern and trend of IMIDs from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We collected detailed information on six major causes of IMIDs, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, between 1990 and 2019, derived from the Global Burden of Disease study in 2019. The average annual percent change (AAPC) in number of incidents and age standardized incidence rate (ASR) on IMIDs, by sex, age, region, and causes, were calculated to quantify the temporal trends. Findings: In 2019, rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease accounted 1.59%, 36.17%, 54.71%, 0.09%, 6.84%, 0.60% of overall new IMIDs cases, respectively. The ASR of IMIDs showed substantial regional and global variation with the highest in High SDI region, High-income North America, and United States of America. Throughout human lifespan, the age distribution of incident cases from six IMIDs was quite different. Globally, incident cases of IMIDs increased with an AAPC of 0.68 and the ASR decreased with an AAPC of −0.34 from 1990 to 2019. The incident cases increased across six IMIDs, the ASR of rheumatoid arthritis increased (0.21, 95% CI 0.18, 0.25), while the ASR of asthma (AAPC = −0.41), inflammatory bowel disease (AAPC = −0.72), multiple sclerosis (AAPC = −0.26), psoriasis (AAPC = −0.77), and atopic dermatitis (AAPC = −0.15) decreased. The ASR of overall and six individual IMID increased with SDI at regional and global level. Countries with higher ASR in 1990 experienced a more rapid decrease in ASR. Interpretation: The incidence patterns of IMIDs varied considerably across the world. Innovative prevention and integrative management strategy are urgently needed to mitigate the increasing ASR of rheumatoid arthritis and upsurging new cases of other five IMIDs, respectively. Funding: The Global Burden of Disease Study is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The project funded by Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital (2022QN38)
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