86 research outputs found

    Accurate determination of Biotinidase activity in serum by HPLC and its utilization as second tier test for the confirmation of initial positive newborn screening results

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    Diagnosis of Biotinidase deficiency (BTD) is extremely important to avoid several neurodevelopmental problems in early childhood. Colorimetric and fluorometric methods lack specificity and selectivity due to several interferences resulting in a high number of false positive results. We developed an HPLC method for BTD activity in serum with fluorescent detection. In colorimetric assays, biotinidase attacks the amide linkage of the artificial substrate biotinidyl-4-aminobenzoic acid (B-PABA) and releases p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is converted to a purple dye by diazotization reaction. The newly developed method injects the reaction mixture directly into the HPLC column and quantifies using a six-point calibration curve without coupling and diazotization reaction. The method is linear over the 5–1000 μmol/L range. The detection and quantitation limits were 2.5 μmol/L and 5.0 μmol/L, respectively. When compared with colorimetric assay, the correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.9963. The within-assay and between-assay precision was <10.0% for four levels of quality control samples. No significant variation in BTD activity was detected due to hemolysis, icteric, and lipemic samples. The newly developed method eliminates the potential interference due to the presence of aromatic amines and significantly reduces the false positive results observed with the colorimetric method. It is simple, specific, sensitive, faster in sample preparation, and requires a small sample volume. The newly developed HPLC method was used in our laboratory as a secondary tier test for initial positive BTD samples from newborn screening programs. To our knowledge, no similar HPLC method has been reported to date

    Polygeneration syngas and power from date palm waste steam gasification through an Aspen Plus process modeling

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    Date palm waste (DPW) is an important waste that is abundantly available in the Middle East. However, this DPW is underutilization in the entire Middle East region. DPW could be a useful source of feedstock to generate sustainable and renewable energy via various thermochemical processes. The core objective of current investigation is to convert the DPW into syngas and the electricity generation from the produced syngas. Furthermore, to configure an integrated system to predict the gas composition and power generation under operating variables of temperature, steam/biomass ratio, compression ratio, and air flowrate. The integrated process simulation model of gasification and power generation model was developed using Aspen Plus V10®. The model consisted of two parts; the production of syngas from steam gasification and the second was the combustion-integrated power turbine system for power generation. The syngas composition at a temperature of 850 °C and steam/biomass of 1.0 was obtained as; H2 37.88 vol%, CO14.24 vol%, CO2 11.29 vol%, CH4 0.001 vol%. The power generation from the gas turbine increased from 3.2 to 3.6 MW with the increase in temperature. Whereas the total power generation was in the range of 3.2 to 5 MW with an increased steam flowrate of 500–2500 kg/h. Energy analysis shows that the process heat integration of the system is able to fulfill the 78 % utilities requirement within the system. This study provides the potential utilization of DPW for renewable fuel gas and electricity generation through a sustainable route and also provides environmentally friendly disposal of DPW in the Middle East and elsewhere in the world.Peer reviewe

    A New Inverse Kumaraswamy Family of Distributions: Properties and Application

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    The Kumaraswamy distribution is an important probability distribution used to model several hydrological problems as well as various natural phenomena whose process values are bounded on both sides. In this paper, we introduce a new family of inverse Kumaraswamy distribution and then explore its statistical properties. Conventional maximum likelihood estimators are considered for the parameters of this distribution and estimation based on dual generalized order statistics is outlined. A particular sub-model of this family; namely, the inverse Kumaraswamy- Weibull distribution is considered and some of its statistical properties are obtained. Estimation efficiency is numerically evaluated via a simulation study and two real-data applications of the proposed distribution are provided as well

    Programmed death‐ligand 1 expression in Epstein‐Barr virus positive nasopharyngeal cancer

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    Abstract Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is common in Saudi Arabia; Most cases are related to the Epstein‐Barr virus (EBV), which is associated with treatment failure and a high recurrence rate. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD‐1) and Programmed death‐ligand 1 (PD‐L1) inhibitors emerged as breakthroughs in cancer treatment, including head and neck cancers. The benefit of these therapies was seen in patients with high expression of PD‐L1, which is unknown in our population.  We aim to assess PD‐L1 expression in EBV‐related NPC patients presented to King Fahd Medical City (KFMC). We identified 41 cases of EBV‐related NPC diagnosed between 2016 and 2019. PD‐L1 expression was assessed using the Tumor Proportion Score (TPS) and Combined Positive Scores (CPS). Results showed that PD‐L1 expression was negative in 51% and 29% using TPS and CPS scores, respectively. High expression of PD‐L1, more than 50%, was seen in 17% using TPS and 22% using CPS. There was no statistically significant correlation between the degree of PD‐L1 expression by TPS or CPS and many variables, including gender, comorbidities, BMI, TNM staging, and smoking status. Over a median follow‐up of 29.7 months, Kaplan‐Meier survival curves did not show a statistically significant difference between all groups of PD‐L1 expression for O.S. or PFS; However, there were shorter O.S noted with CPS 1%–9%, log‐rank p‐value = 0.031. These findings support investigating the role of Immunotherapy, especially in the high expression subgroup. Data for these patients' outcomes and further studies to explore the role of PD‐L1 in NPC are needed

    Novel Design of RNA Aptamers as Cancer Inhibitors and Diagnosis Targeting the Tyrosine Kinase Domain of the NT-3 Growth Factor Receptor Using a Computational Sequence-Based Approach

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    Aptamers, the nucleic acid analogs of antibodies, bind to their target molecules with remarkable specificity and sensitivity, making them promising diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is time-consuming and expensive. However, regardless of those issues, it is the most used in vitro method for selecting aptamers. Therefore, recent studies have used computational approaches to reduce the time and cost associated with the synthesis and selection of aptamers. In an effort to present the potential of computational techniques in aptamer selection, a simple sequence-based method was used to design a 69-nucleotide long aptamer (mod_09) with a relatively stable structure (with a minimum free energy of &minus;32.2 kcal/mol) and investigate its binding properties to the tyrosine kinase domain of the NT-3 growth factor receptor, for the first time, by employing computational modeling and docking tools

    Delineation of Physiological, Agronomic and Genetic Responses of Different Wheat Genotypes under Drought Condition

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    Abioticstress such as drought is a potential threat posing a severe challenge to wheat production across the globe. The current study comparatively delineated the performance of elite Pakistani bread wheat genotypes at physiological (chlorophyll, canopy temperature, cell membrane percentage stability and leaf relative water content), agronomic (plant height, tillers plant&minus;1, flag leaf area, spike length, spikelets spike&minus;1, grains spike&minus;1, grain yield spike&minus;1, thousand grain weight and plant biomass) and genetic (TaDREB1A, TaGROS-A, TaLEA3, TaHSFA1a, TaWRKY44 and TaEXPA2) levels. Atri-replicate experiment was conducted in a two factorial arrangement using RCBD, and data were analyzed statistically using the computer-based programsStatistix8.1 and R-studio. In general, all wheat genotypes illustrated significant (p &le; 0.05) alterations in physiological and agronomic traits under drought stress as compared to the control; however, this alteration was significantly (p &le; 0.05) different among all genotypes owing to their varying genetic potential. Furthermore, these genotypes were evaluated for the extent of the association of physiological and agronomic traits using PCA, correlation and heatmap analysis, which proved statistically significant variation in the paired association of traits among all genotypes during drought stress as compared to the control. In addition, based on statistical evaluations, the genotypes Pakistan-13, Shahkar-13, AAS-11, Chakwal-86, Chakwal-50 and AUR-09 were found to be tolerant, while genotypes Anmol-97, Chakwal-97, Bhakkar-02 and BWP-97 were comparatively susceptible. Furthermore, these screened genotypes showed differential expression of drought-related genes, with relatively high expression in tolerant genotypes compared to susceptible genotypes. The current study concluded that physiological, agronomic and molecular characteristics are significantly interconnected, and these associations determine the end productivity of wheat genotypes during abiotic stress. Therefore, their integrated study can enhance the pace of wheat breeding for drought tolerance in the near future

    Delineation of Physiological, Agronomic and Genetic Responses of Different Wheat Genotypes under Drought Condition

    No full text
    Abioticstress such as drought is a potential threat posing a severe challenge to wheat production across the globe. The current study comparatively delineated the performance of elite Pakistani bread wheat genotypes at physiological (chlorophyll, canopy temperature, cell membrane percentage stability and leaf relative water content), agronomic (plant height, tillers plant−1, flag leaf area, spike length, spikelets spike−1, grains spike−1, grain yield spike−1, thousand grain weight and plant biomass) and genetic (TaDREB1A, TaGROS-A, TaLEA3, TaHSFA1a, TaWRKY44 and TaEXPA2) levels. Atri-replicate experiment was conducted in a two factorial arrangement using RCBD, and data were analyzed statistically using the computer-based programsStatistix8.1 and R-studio. In general, all wheat genotypes illustrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) alterations in physiological and agronomic traits under drought stress as compared to the control; however, this alteration was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different among all genotypes owing to their varying genetic potential. Furthermore, these genotypes were evaluated for the extent of the association of physiological and agronomic traits using PCA, correlation and heatmap analysis, which proved statistically significant variation in the paired association of traits among all genotypes during drought stress as compared to the control. In addition, based on statistical evaluations, the genotypes Pakistan-13, Shahkar-13, AAS-11, Chakwal-86, Chakwal-50 and AUR-09 were found to be tolerant, while genotypes Anmol-97, Chakwal-97, Bhakkar-02 and BWP-97 were comparatively susceptible. Furthermore, these screened genotypes showed differential expression of drought-related genes, with relatively high expression in tolerant genotypes compared to susceptible genotypes. The current study concluded that physiological, agronomic and molecular characteristics are significantly interconnected, and these associations determine the end productivity of wheat genotypes during abiotic stress. Therefore, their integrated study can enhance the pace of wheat breeding for drought tolerance in the near future

    Development and Optimization of Tamarind Gum-&beta;-Cyclodextrin-g-Poly(Methacrylate) pH-Responsive Hydrogels for Sustained Delivery of Acyclovir

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    Acyclovir has a short half-life and offers poor bioavailability. Its daily dose is 200 mg five times a day. A tamarind gum and &beta;-cyclodextrin-based pH-responsive hydrogel network for sustained delivery of acyclovir was developed using the free-radical polymerization technique. Developed networks were characterized by FTIR, DSC, TGA, PXRD, EDX, and SEM. The effect of varying feed ratios of polymers, monomers, and crosslinker on the gel fraction, swelling, and release was also investigated. FTIR findings confirmed the compatibility of the ingredients in a new complex polymer. The thermal stability of acyclovir was increased within the newly synthesized polymer. SEM photomicrographs confirmed the porous texture of hydrogels. The gel fraction was improved (from 90.12% to 98.12%) with increased reactant concentrations. The pH of the dissolution medium and the reactant contents affected swelling dynamics and acyclovir release from the developed carrier system. Based on the R2 value, the best-fit model was zero-order kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion as a release mechanism. The biocompatibility of the developed network was confirmed through hematology, LFT, RFT, lipid profile, and histopathological examinations. No sign of pathology, necrosis, or abrasion was observed. Thus, a pH-responsive and biocompatible polymeric system was developed for sustained delivery of acyclovir to reduce the dosing frequency and improve patient compliance

    Tracking missing person in large crowd gathering using intelligent video surveillance

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    Locating a missing child or elderly person in a large gathering through face recognition in videos is still challenging because of various dynamic factors. In this paper, we present an intelligent mechanism for tracking missing persons in an unconstrained large gathering scenario of Al-Nabawi Mosque, Madinah, KSA. The proposed mechanism in this paper is unique in two aspects. First, there are various proposals existing in the literature that deal with face detection and recognition in high-quality images of a large crowd but none of them tested tracking of a missing person in low resolution images of a large gathering scenario. Secondly, our proposed mechanism is unique in the sense that it employs four phases: (a) report missing person online through web and mobile app based on spatio-temporal features; (b) geo fence set estimation for reducing search space; (c) face detection using the fusion of Viola Jones cascades LBP, CART, and HAAR to optimize the results of the localization of face regions; and (d) face recognition to find a missing person based on the profile image of reported missing person. The overall results of our proposed intelligent tracking mechanism suggest good performance when tested on a challenging dataset of 2208 low resolution images of large crowd gathering

    Current Overview on Therapeutic Potential of Vitamin D in Inflammatory Lung Diseases

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    Inflammatory lung disorders (ILDs) are one of the world’s major reasons for fatalities and sickness, impacting millions of individuals of all ages and constituting a severe and pervasive health hazard. Asthma, lung cancer, bronchiectasis, pulmonary fibrosis acute respiratory distress syndrome, and COPD all include inflammation as a significant component. Microbe invasions, as well as the damage and even death of host cells, can cause and sustain inflammation. To counteract the negative consequences of irritants, the airways are equipped with cellular and host defense immunological systems that block the cellular entrance of these irritants or eliminate them from airway regions by triggering the immune system. Failure to activate the host defense system will trigger chronic inflammatory cataracts, leading to permanent lung damage. This damage makes the lungs more susceptible to various respiratory diseases. There are certain restrictions of the available therapy for lung illnesses. Vitamins are nutritional molecules that are required for optimal health but are not produced by the human body. Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D) is classified as a vitamin, although it is a hormone. Vitamin D is thought to perform a function in bone and calcium homeostasis. Recent research has found that vitamin D can perform a variety of cellular processes, including cellular proliferation; differentiation; wound repair; healing; and regulatory systems, such as the immune response, immunological, and inflammation. The actions of vitamin D on inflammatory cells are dissected in this review, as well as their clinical significance in respiratory illnesses
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