1,445 research outputs found

    Residual amniotic fluid volume predicts the sealing of preterm prelabor rupture of fetal membranes in the pre- and periviable period

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    Objective: Preterm prelabor rupture of fetal membranes (pPROM) is a leading cause of preterm birth. When pPROM occurs around the pre- and periviable period, the perinatal outcome is unfavorable. However, there have been a few cases in which the leakage of amniotic fluid ceases and the ruptured fetal membranes are spontaneously sealed. Materials and methods: The prognosis of 38 cases of pPROM at less than 27 weeks of gestation in Kyoto University Hospital were studied. The clinical factors related to the sealing of fetal membranes were investigated. Results: Spontaneous sealing was confirmed in five patients (13%), and sealing occurred within 14 days of pPROM. Women in the no sealing group delivered at 26.3¬†¬Ī¬†0.5 weeks of gestation, whereas women in the sealing group delivered at term at 38.8¬†¬Ī¬†0.4 weeks (p¬†<¬†0.0001). The maximum vertical pocket (MVP) of amniotic fluid at the time of pPROM diagnosis was 2.2¬†¬Ī¬†0.3¬†cm in the no sealing group and 3.8¬†¬Ī¬†0.5¬†cm in the sealing group (p¬†=¬†0.043). All cases of sealing occurred when the MVP at diagnosis was more than 2¬†cm, and there were no cases of sealing if the MVP at diagnosis was less than 2¬†cm. In addition, the value of C-reactive protein at ROM was less than 0.4¬†mg/dL in all cases in the sealing group. Conclusion: The residual volume of sterile amniotic fluid at the onset of pPROM may predict the possibility of fetal membrane sealing

    Gingivitis in calves: longitudinal hematological and metabolic profiles- and salivary buffering capacity in animals treated with virginiamycin

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    ABSTRACT: Gingivitis is an infectious inflammatory process that generates local and systemic conditions, compromising the masticatory capacity of animals. Virginiamycin controls and prevents gingivitis and necrotizing gingivitis in cattle. However, the interaction and effect with different sera and salivary elements remain unknown. The present 6-month longitudinal study evaluated the hematological, metabolic, and salivary buffering capacity profiles of calves with gingivitis treated with virginiamycin. Ten calves were divided into two groups: control and virginiamycin (n = 5 each). Calves in the virginiamycin group had a lower occurrence of gingivitis (P < 0.01, Student’s t-test). The animals that developed gingivitis in both experimental groups had higher salivary levels of alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.01915) and lower serum levels of albumin (P = 0.0028). Additionally, animals receiving virginiamycin had higher serum levels of magnesium (P = 0.008), albumin (P = 0.0008), urea (P = 0.008), alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.008), total proteins (P = 0.008), and plasma protein (P = 0.018). Salivary buffering capacity was negatively correlated with salivary variables such as calcium, magnesium, albumin, total protein, and aspartate aminotransferase and serum variables such as albumin and aspartate aminotransferase. Results of the present study suggested that the occurrence of periodontopathies in episodes is reflected in the local and systemic alterations in animals. In this context, clinical periodontal monitoring also showed the benefits of virginiamycin supplementation on gingival conditions and systemic health markers, in addition to controlling the two precursor forms of periodontitis

    Characteristics of pregnancy complicated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

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    Objective: Diabetes in pregnancy is a major risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes such as congenital anomalies, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), and macrosomia. For the mechanism of onset of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are different, we focused on the difference in perinatal outcomes between the type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed 22 pregnancies with type 1 diabetes and 15 pregnancies with type 2 diabetes, who were managed in our single center, with regard to maternal diabetes conditions during pregnancy and neonatal birthweight and blood glucose level. Furthermore, we checked the effect of continuous glucose monitoring and continuous subcutaneous insulin injection in pregnancies with type 1 diabetes. Results: Type 1 diabetes in pregnancy was less controllable and increased neonatal birth weight and neonatal hypoglycemia within 2 h after birth after neonatal care unit admission. Continuous glucose monitoring and continuous subcutaneous insulin injection that are convenient to use, had a similar effect in the management of type 1 diabetes during pregnancy, compared with conventional diabetes treatment. In contrast, maternal BMI and HDP were increased in women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion: In the management of pregnancy with diabetes, we should pay attention to the difference in pregnancy prognosis between type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    TERMOGRAFIA E AMBI√äNCIA DE GALP√ēES AV√ćCOLAS DE POSTURA COM DIFERENTE MATERIAL DE COBERTURA NA REGI√ÉO DO VALE DO SUBM√ČDIO S√ÉO FRANCISCO

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    A avicultura tem se expandido para regi√Ķes com condi√ß√Ķes clim√°ticas adversas tais como a regi√£o semi√°rida do nordeste brasileiro. Objetivou-se com este trabalho: 1) avaliar o ambiente termo ac√ļstico de dois galp√Ķes av√≠colas de postura, com diferente material de cobertura, por meio das vari√°veis: temperatura m√≠nima, m√©dia, mediana e m√°xima da superf√≠cie interna das coberturas; n√≠vel de ru√≠do instant√Ęneo; temperatura, umidade relativa e velocidade m√©dia do ar; ITE ‚Äď √ćndice de temperatura equivalente; 2) verificar a qualidade da √°gua de bebida dos animais, por meio das vari√°veis: temperatura e condutividade el√©trica; e 3) estimar as perdas de calor sens√≠vel dos animais. Os galp√Ķes comerciais avaliados foram constru√≠dos id√™nticos, no modelo californiano, com p√≥rticos de estrutura met√°lica e equipados com ventiladores e sistema de nebuliza√ß√£o interna. Os equipamentos, digitais port√°teis, utilizados na coleta dos dados foram: c√Ęmera foto t√©rmica, anem√īmetro, termo-higr√īmetro, decibel√≠metro e condutiv√≠metro. A coleta dos dados foi realizada no per√≠odo vespertino em sete pontos distintos ao longo do comprimento dos galp√Ķes. A velocidade do ar, temperatura m√≠nima, m√©dia e mediana da superf√≠cie interna das telhas apresentaram diferen√ßa significativa entre os tratamentos (galp√Ķes). Ademais, todas as temperaturas da superf√≠cie interna das telhas da cobertura de a√ßo galvanizado apresentaram diferen√ßa significativa entre a face voltada para o sul e a face voltada para o norte. As demais vari√°veis n√£o apresentaram diferen√ßa significativa

    CONSTRU√á√ÉO E VALIDA√á√ÉO DE BIODIGESTOR DE BANCADA, TIPO BATELADA, PARA QUANTIFICAR BIOG√ĀS A BAIXO CUSTO

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    The objective of this work was to build and validate 24 batch-type biodigestors to quantify biogas produced from the anaerobic fermentation of agro-industrial residues. The effluents and effluents of the biodigesters were characterized in terms of physical parameters (Total Solids, Fixed Solids and Volatile Solids) and physical chemical parameters: (pH and Electrical Conductivity). The yield (L biog√°s.kg-1SV.ad), the productivity (Lbiog√°s.L-1reactor.d-1) of biogas and the Volumetric Organic Load added COVad (kgSV.L-1reactor.d-1) were calculated. . The experiment was carried out at the Campus of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of Vale do S√£o Francisco with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, using a randomized block design (DBC). The production of biogas from the anaerobic fermentation of the analyzed treatments did not have a significant difference at 5% probability. The physical parameters of the effluents and affluents of the biodigesters showed values similar to those found in the literature for both treatments. The physical chemical parameters of the effluents and effluents of the biodigesters did not remain within the ranges, called ideal described in the literature for biogas production, except for the treatments bovine manure (T2) and sorghum 25% + bovine manure 75% (T4). Cattle manure (T2) showed the highest yield (240.04 Lbiog√°s.kg-1SVad) and a higher mean COVad of 8.00 kgSV.L-1reactor.d-1.El objetivo de este trabajo fue construir y validar 24 biodigestores de sobremesa, tipo lote, para cuantificar el biog√°s producido a partir de la fermentaci√≥n anaer√≥bica de residuos agroindustriales. Los efluentes y afluentes de los biodigestores se caracterizaron en t√©rminos de par√°metros f√≠sicos (S√≥lidos Totales, S√≥lidos Fijos y S√≥lidos Vol√°tiles) y par√°metros f√≠sico-qu√≠micos (pH y Conductividad El√©ctrica). Se calcul√≥ el rendimiento (Lbiog√°s.kg-1SVad), la productividad (Lbiogas.L-1reator.d-1) del biog√°s y la Carga Org√°nica Volum√©trica a√Īadida COVad (kgSV.L-1reator.d-1). El experimento fue realizado en el Campus de Ciencias Agr√≠colas de la Universidad Federal de Vale do S√£o Francisco con un tiempo de retenci√≥n hidr√°ulica de 30 d√≠as, utilizando un dise√Īo de bloque aleatorio (DBC). La producci√≥n de biog√°s a partir de la fermentaci√≥n anaer√≥bica de los tratamientos analizados no tuvo diferencia significativa con una probabilidad del 5%. Los par√°metros f√≠sicos de los efluentes y afluentes de los biodigestores presentaron valores similares a los encontrados en la literatura para ambos tratamientos. Los par√°metros fisicoqu√≠micos de los efluentes y afluentes de los biodigestores no se mantuvieron dentro de los rangos, llamados ideales descritos en la literatura para la producci√≥n de biog√°s, a excepci√≥n de los tratamientos de residuos bovinos (T2) y sorgo 25% + esti√©rcol bovino 75% (T4). El esti√©rcol bovino (T2) mostr√≥ mayor rendimiento (240,04 Lbiog√°s.kg-1SVad) y un COVad promedio mayor de 8,00 kgSV.L-1reator.d-1.Objetivou-se com este trabalho construir e validar 24 biodigestores de bancada, tipo batelada, para quantificar biog√°s produzido a partir da fermenta√ß√£o anaer√≥bia de res√≠duos agroindustriais. Caracterizou-se os efluentes e afluentes dos biodigestores quanto aos par√Ęmetros f√≠sicos (S√≥lidos Totais, S√≥lidos Fixos e S√≥lidos Vol√°teis) e f√≠sico qu√≠micos: (pH e Condutividade El√©trica). Calculou-se o rendimento (Lbiog√°s.kg-1SVad), a produtividade (Lbiog√°s.L-1reator.d-1) de biog√°s e a Carga Org√Ęnica Volum√©trica adicionada COVad (kgSV.L-1reator.d-1). O experimento foi conduzido no Campus de Ci√™ncias Agr√°rias da Universidade Federal do Vale do S√£o Francisco com tempo de reten√ß√£o hidr√°ulica de 30 dias, utilizando o delineamento em blocos casualizados (DBC). A produ√ß√£o de biog√°s a partir da fermenta√ß√£o anaer√≥bia dos tratamentos analisados n√£o teve diferen√ßa significativa a 5% de probabilidade. Os par√Ęmetros f√≠sicos dos efluentes e afluentes dos biodigestores apresentaram valores similares aos encontrados na literatura para ambos os tratamentos. Os par√Ęmetros f√≠sico qu√≠micos dos efluentes e afluentes dos biodigestores n√£o permaneceram dentro das faixas, denominadas ideais descritas na literatura para produ√ß√£o de biog√°s, exceto os tratamentos dejetos bovino (T2) e sorgo 25% + dejeto bovino 75% (T4). O dejeto bovino (T2) apresentou maior rendimento (240,04 Lbiog√°s.kg-1SVad) e uma maior COVad m√©dia de 8,00 kgSV.L-1reator.d-1.Objetivou-se com este trabalho construir e validar 24 biodigestores de bancada, tipo batelada, para quantificar biog√°s produzido a partir da fermenta√ß√£o anaer√≥bia de res√≠duos agroindustriais. Caracterizou-se os efluentes e afluentes dos biodigestores quanto aos par√Ęmetros f√≠sicos (S√≥lidos Totais, S√≥lidos Fixos e S√≥lidos Vol√°teis) e f√≠sico qu√≠micos: (pH e Condutividade El√©trica). Calculou-se o rendimento (Lbiog√°s.kg-1SVad), a produtividade (Lbiog√°s.L-1reator.d-1) de biog√°s e a Carga Org√Ęnica Volum√©trica adicionada COVad (kgSV.L-1reator.d-1). O experimento foi conduzido no Campus de Ci√™ncias Agr√°rias da Universidade Federal do Vale do S√£o Francisco com tempo de reten√ß√£o hidr√°ulica de 30 dias, utilizando o delineamento em blocos casualizados (DBC). A produ√ß√£o de biog√°s a partir da fermenta√ß√£o anaer√≥bia dos tratamentos analisados n√£o teve diferen√ßa significativa a 5% de probabilidade. Os par√Ęmetros f√≠sicos dos efluentes e afluentes dos biodigestores apresentaram valores similares aos encontrados na literatura para ambos os tratamentos. Os par√Ęmetros f√≠sico qu√≠micos dos efluentes e afluentes dos biodigestores n√£o permaneceram dentro das faixas, denominadas ideais descritas na literatura para produ√ß√£o de biog√°s, exceto os tratamentos dejetos bovino (T2) e sorgo 25% dejeto bovino 75% (T4). O dejeto bovino (T2) apresentou maior rendimento (240,04 Lbiog√°s.kg-1SVad) e uma maior COVad m√©dia de 8,00 kgSV.L-1reator.d-1

    Usefulness of a humanized tricellular static transwell blood‚Äďbrain barrier model as a microphysiological system for drug development applications. - A case study based on the benchmark evaluations of blood-brain barrier microphysiological system

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    Microphysiological system (MPS), a new technology for in vitro testing platforms, have been acknowledged as a strong tool for drug development. In the central nervous system (CNS), the blood‒brain barrier (BBB) limits the permeation of circulating substances from the blood vessels to the brain, thereby protecting the CNS from circulating xenobiotic compounds. At the same time, the BBB hinders drug development by introducing challenges at various stages, such as pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD), safety assessment, and efficacy assessment. To solve these problems, efforts are being made to develop a BBB MPS, particularly of a humanized type. In this study, we suggested minimal essential benchmark items to establish the BBB-likeness of a BBB MPS; these criteria support end users in determining the appropriate range of applications for a candidate BBB MPS. Furthermore, we examined these benchmark items in a two-dimensional (2D) humanized tricellular static transwell BBB MPS, the most conventional design of BBB MPS with human cell lines. Among the benchmark items, the efflux ratios of P-gp and BCRP showed high reproducibility in two independent facilities, while the directional transports meditated through Glut1 or TfR were not confirmed. We have organized the protocols of the experiments described above as standard operating procedures (SOPs). We here provide the SOPs with the flow chart including entire procedure and how to apply each SOP. Our study is important developmental step of BBB MPS towards the social acceptance, which enable end users to check and compare the performance the BBB MPSs

    Comprehensive study of metabolic changes induced by a ketogenic diet therapy using GC/MS- and LC/MS-based metabolomics

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    Objective: The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet, is effective for a subset of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, although the mechanisms of the KD have not been fully elucidated. The aims of this observational study were to investigate comprehensive short-term metabolic changes induced by the KD and to explore candidate metabolites or pathways for potential new therapeutic targets. Methods: Subjects included patients with intractable epilepsy who had undergone the KD therapy (the medium-chain triglyceride [MCT] KD or the modified Atkins diet using MCT oil). Plasma and urine samples were obtained before and at 2‚Äď4 weeks after initiation of the KD. Targeted metabolome analyses of these samples were performed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Results: Samples from 10 and 11 patients were analysed using GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS, respectively. The KD increased ketone bodies, various fatty acids, lipids, and their conjugates. In addition, levels of metabolites located upstream of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, including catabolites of branched-chain amino acids and structural analogues of ő≥-aminobutyric acid and lactic acid, were elevated. Conclusions: The metabolites that were significantly changed after the initiation of the KD and related metabolites may be candidates for further studies for neuronal actions to develop new anti-seizure medications

    Hidden chemical order in disordered Ba7Nb4MoO20 revealed by resonant X-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR

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    Abstract The chemical order and disorder of solids have a decisive influence on the material properties. There are numerous materials exhibiting chemical order/disorder of atoms with similar X-ray atomic scattering factors and similar neutron scattering lengths. It is difficult to investigate such order/disorder hidden in the data obtained from conventional diffraction methods. Herein, we quantitatively determined the Mo/Nb order in the high ion conductor Ba7Nb4MoO20 by a technique combining resonant X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and first-principle calculations. NMR provided direct evidence that Mo atoms occupy only the M2 site near the intrinsically oxygen-deficient ion-conducting layer. Resonant X-ray diffraction determined the occupancy factors of Mo atoms at the M2 and other sites to be 0.50 and 0.00, respectively. These findings provide a basis for the development of ion conductors. This combined technique would open a new avenue for in-depth investigation of the hidden chemical order/disorder in materials
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