47 research outputs found

    Burnout in Israeli medical students:a national survey

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    INTRODUCTION: Professional burnout is characterized by loss of enthusiasm for work, cynicism, and a low sense of personal efficacy. Burnout may adversely affect medical professionalism. Burnout is common in clinicians and varying rates have been reported in medical students. No data exist regarding the prevalence of burnout among Israeli medical students. The aims of this study were to assess the rate of burnout in Israeli medical students and to identify students who were particularly susceptible to burnout. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire design was employed, gathering data from medical students in all years of study across three medical schools. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS), translated into Hebrew. RESULTS: Of the 2160 students in the participating medical schools, 966 (44.7%) completed MBI-SS and demographic questionnaires. The overall burnout rate was 50.6%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded that female gender, age under 25, advanced year of study, studying at a specific medical school and not being a parent are all significantly correlated with higher levels of burnout. CONCLUSIONS: A high rate of burnout was found. The identification of young women who are not parents during advanced years of studies as being at-risk is important, in order to guide the development of burnout prevention interventions

    Placement or displacement: an ethnographic study of space in the clinical learning environment

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    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the spatial attributes in the hospital ward environment and their impact on medical students’ learning and experience of the clinical workplace. Materials and methods: An ethnographic study was conducted in a Scottish teaching hospital, combining observations and interviews over a period of 10 months. Two teaching wards served as the field-sites where approximately 120 h of non-participant observations took place sequentially. In addition, 34 individual interviews were conducted with identified key informants that included medical students, junior doctors, postgraduate trainees, consultant supervisors, ward nurses and hospital pharmacist. A combination of Actor-network Theory (ANT) and Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied to analyse data pertaining to spatial attributes and their relevance to clinical teaching and learning. Results: Analysis of the observational and interview data led to generation of the following themes: spatial attributes in the clinical workplace can enable or constrain teaching and learning opportunities, inadequate spaces impact students’ and junior doctors’ sense of value, short clinical rotations influence a sense of ownership of doctors’ spaces, and contested nature of space in the clinical environment. Several illustrations of the field-sites help to contextualise the themes and aid in understanding the participants’ experiences and perceptions. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a complex entanglement of space with medical students learning and wellbeing in the clinical workplace. Provision of suitable spaces needs to be a core consideration to realise the full potential of work-based learning in medicine

    Time to make space for learning

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    Time to make space for learning

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    Empagliflozin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Background The effects of empagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease who are at risk for disease progression are not well understood. The EMPA-KIDNEY trial was designed to assess the effects of treatment with empagliflozin in a broad range of such patients. Methods We enrolled patients with chronic kidney disease who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 20 but less than 45 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area, or who had an eGFR of at least 45 but less than 90 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of at least 200. Patients were randomly assigned to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or matching placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of progression of kidney disease (defined as end-stage kidney disease, a sustained decrease in eGFR to < 10 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2), a sustained decrease in eGFR of & GE;40% from baseline, or death from renal causes) or death from cardiovascular causes. Results A total of 6609 patients underwent randomization. During a median of 2.0 years of follow-up, progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 432 of 3304 patients (13.1%) in the empagliflozin group and in 558 of 3305 patients (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.82; P < 0.001). Results were consistent among patients with or without diabetes and across subgroups defined according to eGFR ranges. The rate of hospitalization from any cause was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.95; P=0.003), but there were no significant between-group differences with respect to the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes (which occurred in 4.0% in the empagliflozin group and 4.6% in the placebo group) or death from any cause (in 4.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The rates of serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions Among a wide range of patients with chronic kidney disease who were at risk for disease progression, empagliflozin therapy led to a lower risk of progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes than placebo

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-1 inhibition in patients hospitalised with COVID-19: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background Neutrophil serine proteases are involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and increased serine protease activity has been reported in severe and fatal infection. We investigated whether brensocatib, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-1 (DPP-1; an enzyme responsible for the activation of neutrophil serine proteases), would improve outcomes in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. Methods In a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial, across 14 hospitals in the UK, patients aged 16 years and older who were hospitalised with COVID-19 and had at least one risk factor for severe disease were randomly assigned 1:1, within 96 h of hospital admission, to once-daily brensocatib 25 mg or placebo orally for 28 days. Patients were randomly assigned via a central web-based randomisation system (TruST). Randomisation was stratified by site and age (65 years or ≥65 years), and within each stratum, blocks were of random sizes of two, four, or six patients. Participants in both groups continued to receive other therapies required to manage their condition. Participants, study staff, and investigators were masked to the study assignment. The primary outcome was the 7-point WHO ordinal scale for clinical status at day 29 after random assignment. The intention-to-treat population included all patients who were randomly assigned and met the enrolment criteria. The safety population included all participants who received at least one dose of study medication. This study was registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN30564012. Findings Between June 5, 2020, and Jan 25, 2021, 406 patients were randomly assigned to brensocatib or placebo; 192 (47·3%) to the brensocatib group and 214 (52·7%) to the placebo group. Two participants were excluded after being randomly assigned in the brensocatib group (214 patients included in the placebo group and 190 included in the brensocatib group in the intention-to-treat population). Primary outcome data was unavailable for six patients (three in the brensocatib group and three in the placebo group). Patients in the brensocatib group had worse clinical status at day 29 after being randomly assigned than those in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio 0·72 [95% CI 0·57–0·92]). Prespecified subgroup analyses of the primary outcome supported the primary results. 185 participants reported at least one adverse event; 99 (46%) in the placebo group and 86 (45%) in the brensocatib group. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and infections. One death in the placebo group was judged as possibly related to study drug. Interpretation Brensocatib treatment did not improve clinical status at day 29 in patients hospitalised with COVID-19

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with moderate elevations in blood pressure or blood glucose in Ugandan women; a prospective cohort study.

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    BACKGROUND: The association between overt hypertension and diabetes and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well documented. Recent evidence suggests that even moderate elevations in blood pressure or blood glucose may confer a significant risk in a dose-dependent manner. However, these studies have primarily been undertaken in white populations in high-income settings. Hypertension and diabetes are emerging as major public health issues in sub-Saharan Africa as the region undergoes rapid urbanization. It is therefore important to understand how such noncommunicable conditions contribute to pregnancy outcomes in these populations. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association between stage 1 hypertension or fasting blood glucose in the gestational diabetes mellitus-range and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Uganda, and to describe the effects of other contributing factors such as maternal obesity. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study of 2857 women at 5 major hospitals in urban and semiurban central Uganda. Women were enrolled at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation. Data about the maternal demographics, anthropometrics, fasting venous blood glucose, blood pressure, and pregnancy outcomes were collected. Moderate elevations in blood pressure and blood glucose were defined using the latest American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association definition of stage 1 hypertension and the World Health Organization's criteria for fasting blood glucose in the gestational diabetes mellitus-range. The primary outcomes of interest were perinatal death and large birthweight for gestational age, and the secondary outcomes were preterm birth, cesarean delivery, and neonatal admission. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Stage 1 hypertension increased the odds of perinatal death by more than 2-fold (adjusted odds ratio, 2.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-5.29), with a positive but insignificant association with preterm birth. Hyperglycemia in the gestational diabetes mellitus-range was associated with cesarean delivery only (adjusted odds ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.27). Maternal obesity increased the risk of having large birthweight babies (adjusted odds ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.74-3.02), a cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 2.75; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-3.48), and neonatal admission (adjusted odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.30). CONCLUSION: Moderate elevations in blood pressure and maternal obesity are stronger predictors of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes than moderate elevations in blood glucose levels and should be the focus of intervention in these resource-poor settings. Further research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of identifying and managing moderate elevations in blood pressure and maternal obesity
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