94 research outputs found

    An Event Study of the Ethereum Transition to Proof-of-Stake

    No full text
    On 15 September 2022, the Ethereum network adopted a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus mechanism. We study the impact on the network and competing platforms in a two month event window around the Beacon chain merge. We find that the transition to PoS has reduced energy consumption by 99.98%. Miners have not transformed into validators, and total block reward income (in USD) has fallen by 97%, though transaction fees (in ETH) for Ether have increased nearly 10%. The Herfindahl index for the top 10 is 1009; the network is 19% less concentrated after the merge. Ethereum supply growth has been deflationary since the merge. The time between consecutive blocks is now steady at 12 s and transactions per day are up 7.0%. On Polygon, Matic fees rose but token fees fell. Polygon also slows, processing 3.3% fewer transactions per day. Solana’s fees fall by $0.0003, and transactions per day are down 48%. Stablecoin transfer volumes fall on Ethereum and Polygon, but rise on Solana

    Location Basis Differentials in Crude Oil Prices

    No full text

    An empirical analysis of the Shanghai and Shenzhen limit order books ☆

    No full text
    a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o JEL classification: G14 Keywords: Limit order book Chinese stock market Microstructure VAR model This paper investigates the market microstructure of the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges. The two major Chinese stock markets are pure order-driven trading mechanisms without market makers, and we analyze empirically both limit order books. We begin our empirical modeling using the vector autoregressive model of Hasbrouck and extend the model to incorporate other information in the limit order book. We also study the market impact on A shares, B shares and H shares, and analyze how the market impact of stocks varies cross sectionally with market capitalization, tick frequencies, and turnover. Furthermore, we find that market impact is increasing in trade size. Order imbalances predict the next day's returns, with small order imbalances having a negative effect

    The Off Exchange Routing Decision

    No full text
    corecore