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    Relative expression (mean ± s.e.) of candidate genes important for apoptosis in <i>Nosema</i> infected honeybees.

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    <p><i>Nosema</i> sensitive (SN, solid circles) and tolerant (TN, solid squares) honeybees infected with 10<sup>5</sup><i>N</i>. <i>ceranae</i> spores, and their controls uninfected (SC, open circles and TC, open squares), were sampled at 1 day (green) and 6 days (blue) after inoculation. The genes JNK/<i>bsk</i> (Jun N–terminal kinase/ <i>basket</i>), <i>p53</i> (<i>tumor protein p53-like</i>), <i>iap–2</i> (<i>inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2;</i> predicted homologous gene to <i>Diap–1</i> in <i>D</i>. <i>melanogaster</i>), <i>casp–2</i> (<i>caspase–2–like; homologous gene to Dcp–1</i>), <i>casp–10</i> (<i>caspase–10–like; homologous gene to Dredd</i>) were predicted from <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>. Sample sizes are ranging between six and ten pools of three individual honeybee midguts (see also <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0140174#pone.0140174.s003" target="_blank">S3 Table</a>). Significance between treatment groups ***, <i>P</i> < 0.001.</p