166 research outputs found

    Evaluation of the performance of Acuitas® Resistome Test and the Acuitas Lighthouse® software for the detection of β-lactamase-producing microorganisms

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    Objectives: Given the international spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria the need for prompt and precise characterization of underlying resistance traits has evolved into the cornerstone of infection control strategies. Novel commercial molecular tests enable rapid simultaneous testing for multiple resistance genes. We aimed to evaluate the performance of OpGen's Acuitas® Resistome Test and the Acuitas Lighthouse® software. Methods: The test is tailored towards detecting 46 β-lactamase genes (SHV and TEM variants associated with wild-type penicillin resistance, extended-spectrum β-lactamases [ESBLs], acquired AmpCs and carbapenemases) via a microfluidic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. In total 118 isolates part of the collection of the Bacteriology Laboratory of the Hellenic Pasteur Institute, specifically 96 enterobacterial isolates and 21 Acinetobacter baumannii, of divergent origins, with previously characterized β-lactamase content, were tested. Results: In the enterobacterial group all 69 carbapenemase genes of the KPC, VIM, NDM and OXA-48 types were correctly identified (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value [PPV] and negative predictive value [NPV] of 100%). Non-ESBL SHV enzymes, ESBLs (CTX-M, GES, VEB types) and acquired AmpC enzymes were also correctly characterized. Of the 35 SHV-ESBLs harboured, correct identification was possible in 32/35 isolates, with overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for the Klebsiella pneumoniae group of 89.29%, 100%, 100% and 91.18%, respectively. For the A. baumannii group the test exhibited an overall sensitivity for carbapenemase detection of 96.55% and 100% PPV. Conclusions: The OpGen Acuitas Resistome Test is an efficient molecular tool that can identify resistance threats in health care institutions with high diagnostic accuracy and be integrated into targeted surveillance protocols. © 2020 The Author(s

    Ointments containing Ceratothoa oestroides extract: Evaluation of their healing potential in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers

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    Diabetic foot ulceration is a common and severe complication of diabetes, causing substantial social, medical, and economic burdens. Treatment of foot ulcers remains challenging, thus requiring increasing awareness and more efficient management. This study investigates the efficacy of ointments, containing as main active ingredient the olive oil extract of the marine isopod Ceratothoa oestroides, in the treatment of patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Fifty-two patients were allocated into four treatment groups either receiving therapy with an ointment containing extract of C. oestroides or extract of C. oestroides and eosin or extract of C. oestroides and cefaclor or no treatment. Patients were monitored for a period of 135 days by evaluation of transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, planimetry, photo-documentation, and clinical condition. Treatment with the extract of C. oestroides demonstrated significant healing properties that became evident after 45 days of treatment and resulted in complete ulcer healing in 61% of the patients. A significant improvement in transepidermal water loss (p < 0.001), skin hydration levels (p < 0.001), and wound area (p < 0.001) was observed in all patients. Similar efficacy was demonstrated for the combination of C. oestroides extract with eosin treatment (p < 0.001). On the contrary, the combination of C. oestroides extract with cefaclor antibiotic agent completely inhibited the healing properties of the isopod extract and did not improve water loss, skin hydration, or wound area. An important factor for C. oestroides extract healing properties is its selective activity against Gram negative bacteria. Ointments containing C. oestroides extract alone or combined with the antimicrobial agent eosin emerges as an effective regimen for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. © 2019 by the Wound Healing Societ

    Detection in two hospitals of transferable ceftazidimeavibactam resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae due to a novel VEB β-lactamase variant with a Lys234Arg substitution, Greece, 2019

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    Two ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI)-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-positive K. pneumoniae strains, including one pandrug resistant, were isolated in 2019 from two Greek hospitals. The strains were sequence types (ST)s 258 and 147 and both harboured similar self-transmissible IncA/C2 plasmids encoding a novel Lys234Arg variant of the Vietnamese extended-spectrum β-lactamase (VEB)-1, not inhibited by AVI (VEB-25). Conjugal transfer of VEB-25-encoding plasmids to Escherichia coli yielded CAZ-AVI-resistant clones, supporting that VEB-25 is directly linked to the derived phenotype. © 2020 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved

    Containing Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in an endemic setting

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    Background: Carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CP-Kp) has been established as important nosocomial pathogen in most tertiary care hospitals in Greece. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of an enhanced infection control program on the containment of CP-Kp in a haematology unit where the incidence of CP-Kp infections was high. Methods: The study was conducted from June 2011 to December 2014 in a haematology unit of a tertiary-care 500-bed hospital located in Athens, Greece. A bundled intervention (active surveillance cultures, separation of carriers from non-carriers, assignment of dedicated nursing staff, contact precautions, environmental cleaning, and promotion of hand hygiene) was tested whether would reduce colonization and infection caused by CP-Kp. Results: A total of 2507 rectal swabs were obtained; 1199 upon admission from June 2011 to June 2013 and 1307 during hospitalization from June 2011 to December 2012. During intervention the admission prevalence of CP-Kp colonization (p < 0.001 for linear trend), the hospitalization prevalence (p = 0.001 for linear trend) and the incidence rate of CP-Kp colonization (p = 0.072 for linear trend) were declining. Application of segmented linear regression revealed that both the change in the level of CP-Kp BSI incidence rates (p = 0.001) as well as the difference between pre- and post-intervention slopes were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: A bundled intervention including active surveillance cultures on admission can attain maximum containment of CP-Kp colonization and infection in endemic acute healthcare settings. © 2020 The Author(s)

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: in pursuit of an effective treatment

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    Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has gained global notoriety as a critically important nosocomial pathogen. It mostly affects debilitated patients, causing pneumonia and bloodstream infections with high mortality rates. Difficulties in treating CRAB infections stem from a formidable resistance profile that leaves available only a few antibiotics of uncertain efficacy such as colistin and tigecycline. Despite the relentless attempts to improve therapeutic approaches (as depicted in colistin-oriented randomized clinical trials and the numerous observational studies), progress is still limited. Aims: We aim (a) to assist physicians to adapt therapeutic approaches in CRAB infections by considering all potentially available antimicrobials, and (b) to present directions for future investigations that emerge through treatment efforts in endemic settings. Sources: Articles and reviews from PubMed and Scopus databases; studies from ClinicalTrials.gov; presentations from ECCMID congresses and IDWeek meetings. Content: The review provides a succinct overview of the important pharmacokinetic/pharmocodynamic parameters of relevant antimicrobial agents, a critical appraisal of randomized control trials and observational studies, suggestions for increasing the strength of observational studies and directions facilitating the choice of therapeutic regimens by severity of infection and status of the host. Implications: The lack of an optimal therapeutic regimen for CRAB thus far, as shown in this review, suggests the need to thoroughly investigate alternative approaches through carefully designed trials that should include all relevant drugs. Some of these alternative directions are indicated in the present review. © 2019 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Emergence of high drug resistant bacterial isolates from patients with health care associated infections at Jimma University medical center: a cross sectional study

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    Background: The rates of resistant microorganisms which complicate the management of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) are increasing worldwide and getting more serious in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe microbiological features and resistance profiles of bacterial pathogens of HAIs in Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC) in Ethiopia.Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was carried out on hospitalized patients from May to September, 2016 in JUMC. Different clinical specimens were collected from patients who were suspected to hospital acquired infections. The specimens were processed to identify bacterial etiologies following standard microbiological methods. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined in vitro by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.Results: Overall, 126 bacterial etiologies were isolated from 118 patients who had HAIs. Of these, 100 (79.4%) were gram negative and the remaining were gram positive. The most common isolates were Escherichia coli 31(24.6%), Klebsiella species 30(23.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus 26 (20.6%). Of 126 bacterial isolates, 38 (30.2%), 52 (41.3%), and 24 (19%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistant to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories), extensively drug resistant (XDR, resistant to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories (i.e. bacterial isolates remain susceptible to only one or two categories), pan-drug resistant (PDR, resistant to all antibiotic classes) respectively. More than half of isolated gram-negative rods (51%) were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC; and 25% of gram negative isolates were also resistant to carbapenem antibiotics.Conclusions: The pattern of drug resistant bacteria in patients with healthcare associated infection at JUMC is alarming. This calls for coordinated efforts from all stakeholders to prevent HAIs and drug resistance in the study setting

    attI1-Located small open reading frames ORF-17 and ORF-11 in a class 1 integron affect expression of a gene cassette possessing a canonical shine-dalgarno sequence

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    By searching the Integrall integron and GenBank databases, a novel open reading frame (ORF) of 51 nucleotides (nts) (ORF-17) overlapping the previously described ORF-11 was identified within the attI1 site in virtually all class 1 integrons. Using a set of isogenic plasmid constructs carrying a single gene cassette (blaGES-1) and possessing a canonical translation initiation region, we found that ORF-17 contributes to GES-1 expression. © 2017 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved

    A fragment of the alarmin prothymosin α as a novel biomarker in murine models of bacteria-induced sepsis

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    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent care. Thus, the identification of specific and sensitive biomarkers for its early diagnosis and management are of clinical importance. The alarmin prothymosin alpha (proTα) and its decapeptide proTα(100-109) are immunostimulatory peptides related to cell death. In this study, we generated bacterial models of sepsis in mice using two Klebsiella pneumoniae strains (L-78 and ATCC 43816) and monitored sepsis progression using proTα(100-109) as a biomarker. Serum concentration of proTα(100-109) gradually increased as sepsis progressed in mice infected with L-78, a strain which, unlike ATCC 43816, was phagocytosed by monocytes/macrophages. Analysis of splenocytes from L-78-infected animals revealed that post-infection spleen monocytes/macrophages were gradually driven to caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. These results were verified in vitro in L-78-infected human monocytes/macrophages. Efficient phagocytosis of L-78 by monocytes stimulated their apoptosis and the concentration of proTα(100-109) in culture supernatants increased. Human macrophages strongly phagocytosed L-78, but resisted cell death. This is the first report suggesting that high levels of proTα(100-109) correlate, both in vitro and in vivo, with increased percentages of cell apoptosis. Moreover, we showed that low levels of proTα(100-109) early postinfection likely correlate with sepsis resolution and thus, the decapeptide could eventually serve as an early surrogate biomarker for predicting bacteria-induced sepsis outcome. © Samara et al