343 research outputs found

    Moral injury and mental health among health-care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: meta-analysis

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    Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health-care workers (HCWs) may have been confronted with situations that may culminate in moral injury (MI). MI is the psychological distress that may result from perpetrating or witnessing actions that violate one’s moral codes. Literature suggests that MI can be associated with mental health problems. Objective: We aimed to meta-analytically review the literature to investigate whether MI is associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, burnout, and suicidal ideation among active HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: We searched eight databases for studies conducted after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic up to 18 July 2023, and performed random-effects meta-analyses to examine the relationship between MI and various mental health outcomes. Results: We retrieved 33 studies from 13 countries, representing 31,849 individuals, and pooled 79 effect sizes. We found a positive association between MI and all investigated mental health problems (rs = .30–.41, all ps  Conclusion: We found that higher MI is moderately associated with symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, depression, burnout, and suicidal ideation among HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings carry limitations due to the array of MI scales employed, several of which were not specifically designed for HCWs, but underscore the need to mitigate the effect of potentially morally injurious events on the mental health of HCWs. We conducted the first meta-analysis of moral injury and mental health among healthcare workers.Moral injury is moderately associated with symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, burnout, and suicidal ideation.There was a stronger association between MI and anxiety and depressive symptoms for samples with more nurses. We conducted the first meta-analysis of moral injury and mental health among healthcare workers. Moral injury is moderately associated with symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, burnout, and suicidal ideation. There was a stronger association between MI and anxiety and depressive symptoms for samples with more nurses.</p

    EMDR v. other psychological therapies for PTSD: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis

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    Background: This systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) examined the overall effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, achieving response and remission, and reducing treatment dropout among adults with PTSD compared to other psychological treatments. Additionally, we examined available participant-level moderators of the efficacy of EMDR. Methods: This study included randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies were identified by a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, PsyclNFO, PTSDpubs, and CENTRAL. The target population was adults with above-threshold baseline PTSD symptoms. Trials were eligible if at least 70% of study participants had been diagnosed with PTSD using a structured clinical interview. Primary outcomes included PTSD symptom severity, treatment response, and PTSD remission. Treatment dropout was a secondary outcome. The systematic search retrieved 15 eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs); 8 of these 15 were able to be included in this IPDMA (346 patients). Comparator treatments included relaxation therapy, emotional freedom technique, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral psychotherapies, and REM-desensitization. Results: One-stage IPDMA found no significant difference between EMDR and other psychological treatments in reducing PTSD symptom severity (β = -0.24), achieving response (β = 0.86), attaining remission (β = 1.05), or reducing treatment dropout rates (β = -0.25). Moderator analyses found unemployed participants receiving EMDR had higher PTSD symptom severity at the post-test, and males were more likely to drop out of EMDR treatment than females. Conclusion: The current study found no significant difference between EMDR and other psychological treatments. We found some indication of the moderating effects of gender and employment status

    A counsellor-supported ‘PTSD Coach’ intervention versus enhanced Treatment-as-Usual in a resource-constrained setting: A randomised controlled trial

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    To widen treatment access for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in resource-constrained South Africa, we evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of a counsellor-supported PTSD Coach mobile application (app) (PTSD Coach-CS) intervention on PTSD and associated sequelae in a community sample. Participants (female = 89%; black = 77%; aged 19–61) with PTSD were randomised to PTSD Coach-CS (n = 32) or enhanced Treatment-as-Usual (n = 30), and assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-5), PTSD Checklist (PCL-5) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 items, at pre- to post-treatment and follow-up (1 and 3 months). We also collected data on user experiences of the PTSD Coach app with self-administered surveys. We conducted an intent-to-treat analysis and linear mixed models. A significant (group × time) effect for the CAPS-5 (F3.136 = 3.33, p = 0.02) indicated a greater reduction in PTSD symptom severity over time for the intervention group with a significant between-group effect size detected at 3-month follow-up. Significant between-group effect sizes were detected in self-reported stress symptom reduction in the intervention group at post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. Participants perceived the app as helpful and were satisfied with the app. Findings suggest PTSD Coach-CS as a suitable low-cost intervention and potential treatment alternative for adults with PTSD in a resource-constrained country. Replication in larger samples is needed to fully support effectiveness. Pan African Trial Registry: PACTR202108755066871

    Neuroimaging-based classification of PTSD using data-driven computational approaches: A multisite big data study from the ENIGMA-PGC PTSD consortium

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    Background: Recent advances in data-driven computational approaches have been helpful in devising tools to objectively diagnose psychiatric disorders. However, current machine learning studies limited to small homogeneous samples, different methodologies, and different imaging collection protocols, limit the ability to directly compare and generalize their results. Here we aimed to classify individuals with PTSD versus controls and assess the generalizability using a large heterogeneous brain datasets from the ENIGMA-PGC PTSD Working group. Methods: We analyzed brain MRI data from 3,477 structural-MRI; 2,495 resting state-fMRI; and 1,952 diffusion-MRI. First, we identified the brain features that best distinguish individuals with PTSD from controls using traditional machine learning methods. Second, we assessed the utility of the denoising variational autoencoder (DVAE) and evaluated its classification performance. Third, we assessed the generalizability and reproducibility of both models using leave-one-site-out cross-validation procedure for each modality. Results: We found lower performance in classifying PTSD vs. controls with data from over 20 sites (60 % test AUC for s-MRI, 59 % for rs-fMRI and 56 % for d-MRI), as compared to other studies run on single-site data. The performance increased when classifying PTSD from HC without trauma history in each modality (75 % AUC). The classification performance remained intact when applying the DVAE framework, which reduced the number of features. Finally, we found that the DVAE framework achieved better generalization to unseen datasets compared with the traditional machine learning frameworks, albeit performance was slightly above chance. Conclusion: These results have the potential to provide a baseline classification performance for PTSD when using large scale neuroimaging datasets. Our findings show that the control group used can heavily affect classification performance. The DVAE framework provided better generalizability for the multi-site data. This may be more significant in clinical practice since the neuroimaging-based diagnostic DVAE classification models are much less site-specific, rendering them more generalizable

    Widening the scope: defining and treating moral injury in diverse populations

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    Moral injury is an emerging concept that captures the psychosocial consequences of involvement in and exposure to morally transgressive events. In the past decade, research on moral injury has grown exponentially. In this special collection we review papers on moral injury published in the European Journal of Psychotraumatology from its inception until December 2022, that have a primary focus on moral injury as evidenced by the words ‘moral injury’ in the title or abstract. We included 19 papers on quantitative (n = 9) and qualitative (n = 5) studies of different populations including (former) military personnel (n = 9), healthcare workers (n = 4) and refugees (n = 2). Most papers (n = 15) focused on the occurrence of potentially morally injurious experiences (PMIEs), moral injury and associated factors, while four papers primarily concerned treatment. Together, the papers offer a fascinating overview of aspects of moral injury in different populations. Research is clearly widening from military personnel to other populations such as healthcare workers and refugees. Focal points included the impact of PMIEs involving children, the association of PMIEs and personal childhood victimisation, the prevalence of betrayal trauma, and the relationship between moral injury and empathy. As for treatment, points of interest included new treatment initiatives as well as findings that PMIE exposure does not impede help-seeking behaviour and response to PTSD treatment. We further discuss the wide range of phenomena that fall under moral injury definitions, the limited diversity of the moral injury literature, and the clinical utility of the moral injury construct. From conceptualisation to clinical utility and treatment, the concept of moral injury matures. Whether or not moral injury becomes a formal diagnosis, the need to examine tailored interventions to alleviate moral injury is clear

    Sex-based contributors to and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder

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    Purpose of Review Women are twice as likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to men after a traumatic experience. The purpose of this mini review was to explore recent research on biological contributors to this sex difference. Recent Findings We identified 51 studies published since 2019. Studies found that beyond the influence of sex on the prevalence and symptoms of PTSD, there is evidence for and against sex-based differences in genetic and epigenetic factors (n = 8), brain structure and function (n = 11), neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses (n = 5), and in the role of sleep on emotional memory processing (n = 1). Sex differences were also observed in recovery and during PTSD treatment (n = 16). Finally, there is emerging evidence of sex-differentiated risk for medical and psychiatric comorbidities in PTSD (n = 10). Summary Rapid advances are being made using integrated multidisciplinary approaches to understand why females are at a heightened risk for developing PTSD

    Neuroimaging-Based Classification of PTSD Using Data-Driven Computational Approaches:A Multisite Big Data Study from the ENIGMA-PGC PTSD Consortium

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    BACKGROUND: Recent advances in data-driven computational approaches have been helpful in devising tools to objectively diagnose psychiatric disorders. However, current machine learning studies limited to small homogeneous samples, different methodologies, and different imaging collection protocols, limit the ability to directly compare and generalize their results. Here we aimed to classify individuals with PTSD versus controls and assess the generalizability using a large heterogeneous brain datasets from the ENIGMA-PGC PTSD Working group.METHODS: We analyzed brain MRI data from 3,477 structural-MRI; 2,495 resting state-fMRI; and 1,952 diffusion-MRI. First, we identified the brain features that best distinguish individuals with PTSD from controls using traditional machine learning methods. Second, we assessed the utility of the denoising variational autoencoder (DVAE) and evaluated its classification performance. Third, we assessed the generalizability and reproducibility of both models using leave-one-site-out cross-validation procedure for each modality.RESULTS: We found lower performance in classifying PTSD vs. controls with data from over 20 sites (60% test AUC for s-MRI, 59% for rs-fMRI and 56% for d-MRI), as compared to other studies run on single-site data. The performance increased when classifying PTSD from HC without trauma history in each modality (75% AUC). The classification performance remained intact when applying the DVAE framework, which reduced the number of features. Finally, we found that the DVAE framework achieved better generalization to unseen datasets compared with the traditional machine learning frameworks, albeit performance was slightly above chance.CONCLUSION: These results have the potential to provide a baseline classification performance for PTSD when using large scale neuroimaging datasets. Our findings show that the control group used can heavily affect classification performance. The DVAE framework provided better generalizability for the multi-site data. This may be more significant in clinical practice since the neuroimaging-based diagnostic DVAE classification models are much less site-specific, rendering them more generalizable.</p

    Psychometric properties of the Global Psychotrauma Screen in the United States

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    ABSTRACTBackground: Prior research assessing the psychometric properties of the Global Psychotrauma Screen provided support for its internal consistency reliability, construct validity, convergent validity, and divergent validity in several international samples, but not specifically in a U.S. subsample.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess psychometric properties of the GPS in the U.S.Method: This observational study included a convenience sample of individually recruited participants (N = 231) who completed an initial study with 126-item online questionnaire and a two-week follow-up study with GPS alone through the weblinks provided by the research team. Data analyzes included measuring internal consistency and test–retest reliability, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyzes (EFA and CFA), convergent and divergent validity, sensitivity, specificity, and severity of the GPS symptom items. Additional CFA was conducted with data (N = 947) from the GPS multinational research project, U.S. subsample.Results: The results showed acceptable internal consistency and test–retest reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity of the GPS. The construct validity results supported a three-factor structure of the GPS symptoms. The GPS domains showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity with the cut-off scores of 3 for PTSD and 5 for CPTSD domains; and the scores of 1 for the anxiety, depression, and insomnia domains respectively. The GPS risk factors predicted the GPS symptom severity.Conclusions: This study provides new and additional evidence on the psychometric properties of the GPS which may help health care providers with the selection of an appropriate screening instrument for trauma-related transdiagnostic symptoms. The study limitations should be addressed in future research through the replication of EFA and CFA internationally with larger samples, and the inclusion of a reference standard for dissociation
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