36,608 research outputs found

    ING4 (inhibitor of growth family, member 4)

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    Review on ING4 (inhibitor of growth family, member 4), with data on DNA, on the protein encoded, and where the gene is implicated

    Ironing out the details: Untangling dietary iron and genetic background in diabetes

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    The search for genetic risk factors in type-II diabetes has been hindered by a failure to consider dietary variables. Dietary nutrients impact metabolic disease risk and severity and are essential to maintaining metabolic health. Genetic variation between individuals confers differences in metabolism, which directly impacts response to diet. Most studies attempting to identify genetic risk factors in disease fail to incorporate dietary components, and thus are ill-equipped to capture the breadth of the genome’s impact on metabolism. Understanding how genetic background interacts with nutrients holds the key to predicting and preventing metabolic diseases through the implementation of personalized nutrition. Dysregulation of iron homeostasis is associated with type-II diabetes, but the link between dietary iron and metabolic dysfunction is poorly defined. High iron burden in adipose tissue induces insulin resistance, but the mechanisms underlying adipose iron accumulation remain unknown. Hepcidin controls dietary iron absorption and distribution in metabolic tissues, but it is unknown whether genetic variation influencing hepcidin expression modifies susceptibility to dietary iron-induced insulin resistance. This review highlights discoveries concerning the axis of iron homeostasis and adipose function and suggests that genetic variation underlying dietary iron metabolism is an understudied component of metabolic disease

    Sub-arcsecond Morphology of Planetary Nebulae

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    Planetary nebulae (PNe) can be roughly categorized into several broad morphological classes. The high quality images of PNe acquired in recent years, however, have revealed a wealth of fine structures that preclude simplistic models for their formation. Here we present narrow-band, sub-arcsecond images of a sample of relatively large PNe that illustrate the complexity and variety of small-scale structures. This is especially true for bipolar PNe, for which the images reveal multi-polar ejections and, in some cases, suggest turbulent gas motions. Our images also reveal the presence or signs of jet-like outflows in several objects in which this kind of component has not been previously reported.Comment: 7 pages, 7 figures, Accepted for publication in PAS

    Weakly nonlinear investigation of the Saffman-Taylor problem in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell

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    We analyze the Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering problem in rectangular geometry. We investigate the onset of nonlinear effects and the basic symmetries of the mode coupling equations, highlighting the link between interface asymmetry and viscosity contrast. Symmetry breaking occurs through enhanced growth of sub-harmonic perturbations. Our results explain the absence of finger tip-splitting in the early flow stages, and saturation of growth rates compared with the predictions of linear stability.Comment: 42 pages, 5 figures, added references, minor changes, to appear in Int. J. Mod. Phys. B (1998

    Viscous fingering patterns in ferrofluids

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    Viscous fingering occurs in the flow of two immiscible, viscous fluids between the plates of a Hele-Shaw cell. Due to pressure gradients or gravity, the initially planar interface separating the two fluids undergoes a Saffman-Taylor instability and develops finger-like structures. When one of the fluids is a ferrofluid and a perpendicular magnetic field is applied, the labyrinthine instability supplements the usual viscous fingering instability, resulting in visually striking, complex patterns. We consider this problem in a rectangular flow geometry using a perturbative mode-coupling analysis. We deduce two general results: viscosity contrast between the fluids drives interface asymmetry, with no contribution from magnetic forces; magnetic repulsion within the ferrofluid generates finger tip-splitting, which is absent in the rectangular geometry for ordinary fluids.Comment: 29 pages, 5 figures, Late

    Phase diagrams and universality classes of random antiferromagnetic spin ladders

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    The random antiferromagnetic two-leg and zigzag spin-1/2 ladders are investigated using the real space renormalization group scheme and their complete phase diagrams are determined. We demonstrate that the first system belongs to the same universality class of the dimerized random spin-1/2 chain. The zigzag ladder, on the other hand, is in a random singlet phase at weak frustration and disorder. Otherwise, we give additional evidence that it belongs to the universality class of the random antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic quantum spin chains, although the universal fixed point found in the latter system is never realized. We find, however, a new universal fixed point at intermediate disorder.Comment: 10 pages, 10 figure
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