1,615 research outputs found

    Research in Brief - Pushing Education: Parental Engagement, Educational Aspirations and College Access

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    This qualitative study explores the counterstories of educational engagement experiences for five parents who have a high school student in a college access program that is designed for students with a financial need and/or no family history of college. This study uses the ecologies of parental engagement (EPE) framework to explore family engagement in traditional academic settings but also nonacademic settings. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and one focus group. Their counterstories challenge the notion that parents from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and/or no to little family history of college are disinterested or disengaged in their student’s education. The data reveal that the family members are highly engaged in their student’s educational experiences in academic settings, nonacademic settings (home, community organizations, and neighborhoods), and in the college access program. Furthermore, the findings reveal that the college access program serves as an alternative space for family engagement

    Pushing Education: Parental Engagement, Educational Aspirations and College Access

    Get PDF
    This qualitative study explores the counterstories of educational engagement experiences for five parents who have a high school student in a college access program that is designed for students with a financial need and/or no family history of college. This study uses the ecologies of parental engagement (EPE) framework to explore family engagement in traditional academic settings but also nonacademic settings. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and one focus group. Their counterstories challenge the notion that parents from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and/or no to little family history of college are disinterested or disengaged in their student’s education. The data reveal that the family members are highly engaged in their student’s educational experiences in academic settings, nonacademic settings (home, community organizations, and neighborhoods), and in the college access program. Furthermore, the findings reveal that the college access program serves as an alternative space for family engagement

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Treatment for inclusion body myositis

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    Background Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a late-onset inÔ¨āammatory muscle disease (myopathy) associated with progressive proximal and distal limb muscle atrophy and weakness. Treatment options have attempted to target inÔ¨āammatory and atrophic features of this condition (for example with immunosuppressive and immunomodulating drugs, anabolic steroids, and antioxidant treatments), although as yet there is no known effective treatment for reversing or minimising the progression of inclusion body myositis. In this review we have considered the beneÔ¨Āts, adverse effects, and costs of treatment in targeting cardinal effects of the condition, namely muscle atrophy, weakness, and functional impairment. Objectives To assess the effects of treatment for IBM. Search methods On 7 October 2014 we search ed the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and EMBASE. Additionally in November 2014 we searched clinical trials registries for ongoing or completed but unpublished trials. Selection criteria We considered randomised or quasi-randomised trials, including cross-over trials, of treatment for IBM in adults compared to placebo or any other treatment for inclusion in the review. We speciÔ¨Ācally excluded people with familial IBM and hereditary inclusion body myopathy, but we included people who had connective tissue and autoimmune diseases associated with IBM, which may or may not be identiÔ¨Āed in trials. We did not include studies of exercise therapy or dysphagia management, which are topics of other Cochrane systematic reviews. Data collection and analysis We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Main results The review included 10 trials (249 participants) using different treatment regimens. Seven of the 10 trials assessed single agents, and 3 assessed combined agents. Many of the studies did not present adequate data for the reporting of the primary outcome of the review, which was the percentage change in muscle strength score at six months. Pooled data from two trials of interferon beta-1a (n = 58) identified no important difference in normalised manual muscle strength sum scores from baseline to six months (mean difference (MD) -0.06, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.03) between IFN beta-1a and placebo (moderate-quality evidence). A single trial of methotrexate (MTX) (n = 44) provided moderate-quality evidence that MTX did not arrest or slow disease progression, based on reported percentage change in manual muscle strength sum scores at 12 months. None of the fully published trials were adequately powered to detect a treatment effect. We assessed six of the nine fully published trials as providing very low-quality evidence in relation to the primary outcome measure. Three trials (n = 78) compared intravenous immunoglobulin (combined in one trial with prednisone) to a placebo, but we were unable to perform meta-analysis because of variations in study analysis and presentation of trial data, with no access to the primary data for re-analysis. Other comparisons were also reported in single trials. An open trial of anti-T lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG) combined with MTX versus MTX provided very low-quality evidence in favour of the combined therapy, based on percentage change in quantitative muscle strength sum scores at 12 months (MD 12.50%, 95% CI 2.43 to 22.57). Data from trials of oxandrolone versus placebo, azathioprine (AZA) combined with MTX versus MTX, and arimoclomol versus placebo did not allow us to report either normalised or percentage change in muscle strength sum scores. A complete analysis of the effects of arimoclomol is pending data publication. Studies of simvastatin and bimagrumab (BYM338) are ongoing. All analysed trials reported adverse events. Only 1 of the 10 trials interpreted these for statistical significance. None of the trials included prespecified criteria for significant adverse events. Authors\u27 conclusions Trials of interferon beta-1a and MTX provided moderate-quality evidence of having no effect on the progression of IBM. Overall trial design limitations including risk of bias, low numbers of participants, and short duration make it difficult to say whether or not any of the drug treatments included in this review were effective. An open trial of ATG combined with MTX versus MTX provided very low-quality evidence in favour of the combined therapy based on the percentage change data given. We were unable to draw conclusions from trials of IVIg, oxandrolone, and AZA plus MTX versus MTX. We need more randomised controlled trials that are larger, of longer duration, and that use fully validated, standardised, and responsive outcome measures

    Radio Variability of Radio Quiet and Radio Loud Quasars

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    The majority of quasars are weak in their radio emission, with flux densities comparable to those in the optical, and energies far lower. A small fraction, about 10%, are hundreds to thousands of times stronger in the radio. Conventional wisdom holds that there are two classes of quasars, the radio quiets and radio louds, with a deficit of sources having intermediate power. Are there really two separate populations, and if so, is the physics of the radio emission fundamentally different between them? This paper addresses the second question, through a study of radio variability across the full range of radio power, from quiet to loud. The basic findings are that the root mean square amplitude of variability is independent of radio luminosity or radio-to-optical flux density ratio, and that fractionally large variations can occur on timescales of months or less in both radio quiet and radio loud quasars. Combining this with similarities in other indicators, such as radio spectral index and the presence of VLBI-scale components, leads to the suggestion that the physics of radio emission in the inner regions of all quasars is essentially the same, involving a compact, partially opaque core together with a beamed jet.Comment: 32 pages, 9 figures. Astrophysical Journal, in pres

    The optically-powerful quasar E1821+643 is associated with a 300-kpc scale FRI radio structure

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    We present a deep image of the optically-powerful quasar E1821+643 at 18cm made with the Very Large Array (VLA). This image reveals radio emission, over 280 kpc in extent, elongated way beyond the quasar's host galaxy. Its radio structure has decreasing surface brightness with increasing distance from the bright core, characteristic of FRI sources (Fanaroff & Riley 1974). Its radio luminosity at 5GHz falls in the classification for `radio-quiet' quasars (it is only 10^23.9 W/Hz/sr; see e.g. Kellermann et al 1994). Its radio luminosity at 151MHz (which is 10^25.3 W/Hz/sr) is at the transition luminosity observed to separate FRIs and FRIIs. Hitherto, no optically-powerful quasar had been found to have a conventional FRI radio structure. For searches at low-frequency this is unsurprising given current sensitivity and plausible radio spectral indices for radio-quiet quasars. We demonstrate the inevitability of the extent of any FRqI radio structures being seriously under-estimated by existing targetted follow-up observations of other optically-selected quasars, which are typically short exposures of z > 0.3 objects, and discuss the implications for the purported radio bimodality in quasars. The nature of the inner arcsec-scale jet in E1821+643, together with its large-scale radio structure, suggest that the jet-axis in this quasar is precessing (cf. Galactic jet sources such as SS433). A possible explanation for this is that its central engine is a binary whose black holes have yet to coalesce. The ubiquity of precession in `radio-quiet' quasars, perhaps as a means of reducing the observable radio luminosity expected in highly-accreting systems, remains to be established.Comment: Accepted by ApJ Letters; higher quality versions of figures available at http://www-astro.physics.ox.ac.uk/~km

    Periventricular lesions and MS diagnostic criteria in young adults with typical clinically isolated syndromes.

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    In patients who present with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), whose features are suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), fulfilling McDonald 2010 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria for dissemination in space (DIS) and dissemination in time (DIT) enables a diagnosis of MS. While ‚©ĺ1 periventricular lesion is included in the 2010 DIS criteria, earlier McDonald criteria required ‚©ĺ3 periventricular lesions to confirm DIS and recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (MAGNIMS)-recommended DIS criteria also require ‚©ĺ3 lesions. We investigated the effect of varying the required number of periventricular lesions and found that the best combination of specificity and sensitivity for clinically definite MS was seen for ‚©ĺ1 periventricular lesion using both the McDonald 2010 and MAGNIMS 2016 criteria
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