678 research outputs found

    Prospective Memory: The Relation of Executive Function to Aging

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    The executive functions of the frontal lobe seem to play an integral role in the mediation of prospective memory, as suggested by the results of recent studies (Shallice & Burgess, 1991; Cockburn, 1995; Shapiro, Shapiro, Alper, & Russell, in press). In the present study two groups were examined in terms of their performance on four different prospective memory tasks. The two groups included younger adults (ages 18-21) and older adults (ages 62-80). Both groups were asked to perform each of four prospective memory tasks (an event-based, disembedded task; an event-based, embedded task; a time-based, disembedded task; and a timebased, embedded task) webbed within a general knowledge quiz. The participants also were tested using the Stroop Test and the Wisconsin Card Sort Task, which have been acknowledged as predictors of frontal lobe dysfunction. The Kaufmann Brief Intelligence Test, the Williams Inhibition Test, and an Immediate Recall Test were also administered. The results indicate that both groups performed significantly poorer on the TD task in comparison to the ED task. This finding suggests that a. deficit in internal cuing and attentional resources may be responsible for a PM performance deficit

    Fostering Success: What Happens After the Transition Out of Foster Care?

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    The foster care system in the United States continues to pose a great negative impact on its participants. This negative impact consequently lowers their chances of attaining the same level of success as their non-fostered peers. The foster care experience affects their academics, mental and physical health, employment, and has a special impact on minority children. There are several sources of support and resources available to assist this population if the individual, their foster parents, or case manager is aware of them. In addition to being aware of the sources of support and resources, the foster youth or foster care alumnus has to be willing to seek out the help and properly utilize the supports and resources available to them. The supports and resources I further researched are supportive adult relationships, participating in life-skills trainings, having friendships built on non-judgmental acceptance, formal supports, and providing more support focused on foster parents and potential foster parents

    Therapeutic efficacy of anti-MMP9 antibody in combination with nab-paclitaxel-based chemotherapy in pre-clinical models of pancreatic cancer

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    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is involved in the proteolysis of extracellular proteins and plays a critical role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression, invasion and metastasis. The therapeutic potential of an anti-MMP9 antibody (αMMP9) was evaluated in combination with nab-paclitaxel (NPT)-based standard cytotoxic therapy in pre-clinical models of PDAC. Tumour progression and survival studies were performed in NOD/SCID mice. The mechanistic evaluation involved RNA-Seq, Luminex, IHC and Immunoblot analyses of tumour samples. Median animal survival compared to controls was significantly increased after 2-week therapy with NPT (59%), Gem (29%) and NPT+Gem (76%). Addition of αMMP9 antibody exhibited further extension in survival: NPT+αMMP9 (76%), Gem+αMMP9 (47%) and NPT+Gem+αMMP9 (94%). Six-week maintenance therapy revealed that median animal survival was significantly increased after NPT+Gem (186%) and further improved by the addition of αMMP9 antibody (218%). Qualitative assessment of mice exhibited that αMMP9 therapy led to a reduction in jaundice, bloody ascites and metastatic burden. Anti-MMP9 antibody increased the levels of tumour-associated IL-28 (1.5-fold) and decreased stromal markers (collagen I, αSMA) and the EMT marker vimentin. Subcutaneous tumours revealed low but detectable levels of MMP9 in all therapy groups but no difference in MMP9 expression. Anti-MMP9 antibody monotherapy resulted in more gene expression changes in the mouse stroma compared to the human tumour compartment. These findings suggest that anti-MMP9 antibody can exert specific stroma-directed effects that could be exploited in combination with currently used cytotoxics to improve clinical PDAC therapy

    Let\u27s Get Physical: Exploring the Socioemotional Motivators of Group Exercise for Older Adults

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    Approximately 75% of active adults in the U.S. do not meet the recommended levels of overall physical activity (CDC, 2021a). Given the beneficial impact of physical activity on health, an 8-week long, evidence-based group exercise program—Fit & Strong! (F&S!)—was created to improve the health of older adults (Hughes et al., 2004, 2006, 2010). Despite the clear physical benefits of F&S!, it remains unknown what motivates F&S! participants to initially participate in the program and also throughout the program. Drawing from core notions of socioemotional selectivity theory (SST; Carstensen, 2006), research has found that older adults are highly motivated to exercise by social goals (Steltenpohl et al., 2019). In other work, Fredrickson (2016) has proposed that positivity resonance—a caring interpersonal connection involving shared positivity and synchrony—is impactful in enhancing psychological and physiological wellbeing, and may play a central role in the quality of the older adults’ exercise experiences. As such, we investigated the extent to which health, social, and emotional factors motivated older adults to participate in F&S!, as well as the presence of positivity resonance during the program itself. Results indicated that (1) F&S! is most important to older adults for health and social reasons relative to emotional reasons, and (2) older adults, within the context of group exercise, experienced high levels of positivity resonance. These findings highlight the importance of how emphasizing both the social and health benefits of group exercise may be leveraged to motivate and maintain intentions to exercise for older adults

    Pandemic Pressure: Race, Job Insecurity, and Stress during the COVID-19 Pandemic

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    With the ongoing pressure of the COVID-19 pandemic, the working world has been drastically altered. Additionally, pandemic related pressures are not evenly distributed across racial groups–with negative outcomes being exacerbated as a byproduct of structural inequities for people of color (Seldan & Berdahl, 2020). Using the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen et al., 1983), and Job Insecurity Scale (Ashford et al., 1989), we aimed to determine how various work-related factors such as job insecurity, essential worker status, and race relate to overall perceived stress in daily life. Participants (n = 266; Mage = 50.56 years, SD = 7.83; age range: 18-76 years; 49% white, 51% Black) completed a variety of measures through an online survey collected between mid-April and late May 2021. The results indicated that for white workers who identified as non-essential, and Black workers who identified as essential, increased job insecurity predicted an increase in perceived stress. The results of the study provide a launching point for identifying which demographic groups may need more support in the working world. Black essential workers and white non-essential workers likely would greatly benefit from support, resources, and interventions aiming to reduce workplace stress and improve wellbeing