94 research outputs found

    Virtual interviewing for graduate medical education recruitment and selection: A BEME systematic review: BEME Guide No. 80

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    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused graduate medical education (GME) programs to pivot to virtual interviews (VIs) for recruitment and selection. This systematic review synthesizes the rapidly expanding evidence base on VIs, providing insights into preferred formats, strengths, and weaknesses. Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, ERIC, PsycINFO, MedEdPublish, and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2012 to 21 February 2022. Two authors independently screened titles, abstracts, full texts, performed data extraction, and assessed risk of bias using the Medical Education Research Quality Instrument. Findings were reported according to Best Evidence in Medical Education guidance. Results: One hundred ten studies were included. The majority (97%) were from North America. Fourteen were conducted before COVID-19 and 96 during the pandemic. Studies involved both medical students applying to residencies (61%) and residents applying to fellowships (39%). Surgical specialties were more represented than other specialties. Applicants preferred VI days that lasted 4‚Äď6 h, with three to five individual interviews (15‚Äď20 min each), with virtual tours and opportunities to connect with current faculty and trainees. Satisfaction with VIs was high, though both applicants and programs found VIs inferior to in-person interviews for assessing ‚Äėfit.‚Äô Confidence in ranking applicants and programs was decreased. Stakeholders universally noted significant cost and time savings with VIs, as well as equity gains and reduced carbon footprint due to eliminating travel. Conclusions: The use of VIs for GME recruitment and selection has accelerated rapidly. The findings of this review offer early insights that can guide future practice, policy, and research

    Virtual interviewing for graduate medical education recruitment and selection: A BEME systematic review: BEME Guide No. 80

    No full text
    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused graduate medical education (GME) programs to pivot to virtual interviews (VIs) for recruitment and selection. This systematic review synthesizes the rapidly expanding evidence base on VIs, providing insights into preferred formats, strengths, and weaknesses. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, ERIC, PsycINFO, MedEdPublish, and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2012 to 21 February 2022. Two authors independently screened titles, abstracts, full texts, performed data extraction, and assessed risk of bias using the Medical Education Research Quality Instrument. Findings were reported according to Best Evidence in Medical Education guidance. RESULTS: One hundred ten studies were included. The majority (97%) were from North America. Fourteen were conducted before COVID-19 and 96 during the pandemic. Studies involved both medical students applying to residencies (61%) and residents applying to fellowships (39%). Surgical specialties were more represented than other specialties. Applicants preferred VI days that lasted 4-6‚ÄČh, with three to five individual interviews (15-20‚ÄČmin each), with virtual tours and opportunities to connect with current faculty and trainees. Satisfaction with VIs was high, though both applicants and programs found VIs inferior to in-person interviews for assessing 'fit.' Confidence in ranking applicants and programs was decreased. Stakeholders universally noted significant cost and time savings with VIs, as well as equity gains and reduced carbon footprint due to eliminating travel. CONCLUSIONS: The use of VIs for GME recruitment and selection has accelerated rapidly. The findings of this review offer early insights that can guide future practice, policy, and research

    Factors Associated With Severity of COVID-19 Disease in a Multicenter Cohort of People With HIV in the United States, March-December 2020.

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    BackgroundUnderstanding the spectrum of COVID-19 in people with HIV (PWH) is critical to provide clinical guidance and risk reduction strategies.SettingCenters for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinic System, a US multisite clinical cohort of PWH in care.MethodsWe identified COVID-19 cases and severity (hospitalization, intensive care, and death) in a large, diverse HIV cohort during March 1, 2020-December 31, 2020. We determined predictors and relative risks of hospitalization among PWH with COVID-19, adjusted for disease risk scores.ResultsOf 16,056 PWH in care, 649 were diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and December 2020. Case fatality was 2%; 106 (16.3%) were hospitalized, and 12 died. PWH with current CD4 count <350 cells/mm 3 [aRR 2.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93 to 3.71; P < 0.001] or lowest recorded CD4 count <200 cells/mm 3 (aRR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.36; P < 0.005) had greater risks of hospitalization. HIV viral load and antiretroviral therapy status were not associated with hospitalization, although most of the PWH were suppressed (86%). Black PWH were 51% more likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19 compared with other racial/ethnic groups (aRR 1.51; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.19; P = 0.03). Chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and increased cardiovascular and hepatic fibrosis risk scores were associated with higher hospitalization risk. PWH who were older, not on antiretroviral therapy, and with current CD4 count <350 cells/mm 3 , diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were overrepresented among PWH who required intubation or died.ConclusionsPWH with CD4 count <350 cells/mm 3 , and a history of CD4 count <200 cells/mm 3 , have a clear excess risk of severe COVID-19, accounting for comorbidities associated with severe outcomes. PWH with these risk factors should be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination and early treatment and monitored closely for worsening illness

    The Struggling Infectious Diseases Fellow: Remediation Challenges and Opportunities

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    Remediation of struggling learners is a challenge faced by all educators. In recognition of this reality, and in light of contemporary challenges facing infectious diseases (ID) fellowship program directors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America Training Program Directors‚Äô Committee focused the 2018 National Fellowship Program Directors‚Äô Meeting at IDWeek on ‚ÄúRemediation of the Struggling Fellow.‚ÄĚ Small group discussions addressed 7 core topics, including feedback and evaluations, performance management and remediation, knowledge deficits, fellow well-being, efficiency and time management, teaching skills, and career development. This manuscript synthesizes those discussions around a competency-based framework to provide program directors and other educators with a roadmap for addressing common contemporary remediation challenges

    The Struggling Infectious Diseases Fellow: Remediation Challenges and Opportunities.

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    Remediation of struggling learners is a challenge faced by all educators. In recognition of this reality, and in light of contemporary challenges facing infectious diseases (ID) fellowship program directors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America Training Program Directors' Committee focused the 2018 National Fellowship Program Directors' Meeting at IDWeek on "Remediation of the Struggling Fellow." Small group discussions addressed 7 core topics, including feedback and evaluations, performance management and remediation, knowledge deficits, fellow well-being, efficiency and time management, teaching skills, and career development. This manuscript synthesizes those discussions around a competency-based framework to provide program directors and other educators with a roadmap for addressing common contemporary remediation challenges

    The Struggling Infectious Diseases Fellow: Remediation Challenges and Opportunities

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    Remediation of struggling learners is a challenge faced by all educators. In recognition of this reality, and in light of contemporary challenges facing infectious diseases (ID) fellowship program directors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America Training Program Directors‚Äô Committee focused the 2018 National Fellowship Program Directors‚Äô Meeting at IDWeek on ‚ÄúRemediation of the Struggling Fellow.‚ÄĚ Small group discussions addressed 7 core topics, including feedback and evaluations, performance management and remediation, knowledge deficits, fellow well-being, efficiency and time management, teaching skills, and career development. This manuscript synthesizes those discussions around a competency-based framework to provide program directors and other educators with a roadmap for addressing common contemporary remediation challenges

    A retrospective analysis of clinical use of alirocumab in lipoprotein apheresis patients

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    BACKGROUND: The previously published ODYSSEY ESCAPE trial demonstrated a significant reduction in the use of lipoprotein apheresis for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) patients when placed on alirocumab 150 mg every 2 weeks. In patients with HeFH who have consistently elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) despite maximally tolerated statin therapy, current lipid guidelines recommend apheresis. Although apheresis reduces LDL-C levels by 50%-75%, it must be repeated, as frequently as every 1-2 weeks. OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical experience with apheresis and alirocumab for patients in a real-world practice setting. METHODS: This retrospective review included patients from 5 apheresis centers who were treated with apheresis and had started alirocumab therapy. In addition to LDL-C levels, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and particle numbers were evaluated if data were available. RESULTS: Eleven of the 25 (44%) patients discontinued apheresis completely after initiation of alirocumab therapy, having achieved LDL-C \u3c70 mg/dL or \u3e50% reduction from baseline levels. Among the 14 patients who remained on apheresis, seven decreased the frequency of apheresis sessions. No significant safety problems were reported. CONCLUSION: Alirocumab lowered LDL-C levels by an average of 55.5% in patients receiving apheresis for elevated LDL-C. Seventy-two percent of patients on alirocumab therapy discontinued or reduced the frequency of apheresis treatment. However, some patients continued to require apheresis due to elevated lipoprotein(a), extremely elevated LDL-C, or if alirocumab therapy was discontinued due to less than anticipated LDL-C reduction

    The Struggling Infectious Diseases Fellow: Remediation Challenges and Opportunities

    No full text
    Remediation of struggling learners is a challenge faced by all educators. In recognition of this reality, and in light of contemporary challenges facing infectious diseases (ID) fellowship program directors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America Training Program Directors\u27 Committee focused the 2018 National Fellowship Program Directors\u27 Meeting at IDWeek on Remediation of the Struggling Fellow. Small group discussions addressed 7 core topics, including feedback and evaluations, performance management and remediation, knowledge deficits, fellow well-being, efficiency and time management, teaching skills, and career development. This manuscript synthesizes those discussions around a competency-based framework to provide program directors and other educators with a roadmap for addressing common contemporary remediation challenges

    The Gly2019Ser mutation in LRRK2is not fully penetrant in familial Parkinson's disease: the GenePD study

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    Abstract Background We report age-dependent penetrance estimates for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-related Parkinson's disease (PD) in a large sample of familial PD. The most frequently seen LRRK2 mutation, Gly2019Ser (G2019S), is associated with approximately 5 to 6% of familial PD cases and 1 to 2% of idiopathic cases, making it the most common known genetic cause of PD. Studies of the penetrance of LRRK2 mutations have produced a wide range of estimates, possibly due to differences in study design and recruitment, including in particular differences between samples of familial PD versus sporadic PD. Methods A sample, including 903 affected and 58 unaffected members from 509 families ascertained for having two or more PD-affected members, 126 randomly ascertained PD patients and 197 controls, was screened for five different LRRK2 mutations. Penetrance was estimated in families of LRRK2 carriers with consideration of the inherent bias towards increased penetrance in a familial sample. Results Thirty-one out of 509 families with multiple cases of PD (6.1%) were found to have 58 LRRK2 mutation carriers (6.4%). Twenty-nine of the 31 families had G2019S mutations while two had R1441C mutations. No mutations were identified among controls or unaffected relatives of PD cases. Nine PD-affected relatives of G2019S carriers did not carry the LRRK2 mutation themselves. At the maximum observed age range of 90 to 94 years, the unbiased estimated penetrance was 67% for G2019S families, compared with a baseline PD risk of 17% seen in the non-LRRK2-related PD families. Conclusion Lifetime penetrance of LRRK2 estimated in the unascertained relatives of multiplex PD families is greater than that reported in studies of sporadically ascertained LRRK2 cases, suggesting that inherited susceptibility factors may modify the penetrance of LRRK2 mutations. In addition, the presence of nine PD phenocopies in the LRRK2 families suggests that these susceptibility factors may also increase the risk of non-LRRK2-related PD. No differences in penetrance were found between men and women, suggesting that the factors that influence penetrance for LRRK2 carriers are independent of the factors which increase PD prevalence in men
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