8 research outputs found

    Extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in PC12 neuronal cells

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    We have here investigated the effect of the regulatory Tat protein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on the PI 3-kinase catalytic activity in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. After as early as 1 min from the beginning of the treatment with recombinant HIV-1 Tat protein, a significant increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the p85 regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase was noticed in 48 h serum-starved PC12 cells. Moreover, the addition of Tat to PC12 cells induced a great increase in PI 3-kinase immunoprecipitated with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody with a peak of activity (19-fold increase with respect to the basal levels) after a 15-min treatment. This increase in PI 3-kinase activity was significantly higher in PC12 cell cultures supplemented with Tat protein than in cultures stimulated by 100 ng/ml nerve growth factor (NGF; 8-fold increase with respect to the basal levels). Further experiments showed that Tat protein was able to specifically activate PI 3-kinase at picomolar concentrations. In fact: (i) maximal activation of PI 3-kinase was observed at concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml and was specifically blocked by anti-Tat neutralizing antibody; (ii) a Tat-dependent activation was also observed in experiments in which PI 3-kinase activity was evaluated in either anti-Tyr(P) or anti-p85 immunoprecipitates; (iii) 100 nM wortmannin completely blocked the Tat-mediated increase in PI 3-kinase activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our data strongly support the concept that extracellular Tat acts as a cell stimulator, inducing intracellular signal transduction in uninfected cells

    The European Reference Genome Atlas: piloting a decentralised approach to equitable biodiversity genomics.

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    ABSTRACT: A global genome database of all of Earth‚Äôs species diversity could be a treasure trove of scientific discoveries. However, regardless of the major advances in genome sequencing technologies, only a tiny fraction of species have genomic information available. To contribute to a more complete planetary genomic database, scientists and institutions across the world have united under the Earth BioGenome Project (EBP), which plans to sequence and assemble high-quality reference genomes for all ‚ąľ1.5 million recognized eukaryotic species through a stepwise phased approach. As the initiative transitions into Phase II, where 150,000 species are to be sequenced in just four years, worldwide participation in the project will be fundamental to success. As the European node of the EBP, the European Reference Genome Atlas (ERGA) seeks to implement a new decentralised, accessible, equitable and inclusive model for producing high-quality reference genomes, which will inform EBP as it scales. To embark on this mission, ERGA launched a Pilot Project to establish a network across Europe to develop and test the first infrastructure of its kind for the coordinated and distributed reference genome production on 98 European eukaryotic species from sample providers across 33 European countries. Here we outline the process and challenges faced during the development of a pilot infrastructure for the production of reference genome resources, and explore the effectiveness of this approach in terms of high-quality reference genome production, considering also equity and inclusion. The outcomes and lessons learned during this pilot provide a solid foundation for ERGA while offering key learnings to other transnational and national genomic resource projects.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    HIV-1 Tat induces tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK and its association with phosphoinositide 3-kinase in PC12 cells.

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    We evaluated the signal transduction potential of HIV-1 Tat in a neuronal cell model. The tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the focal adhesion kinase p125FAK and its association with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) were evaluated in serum-starved rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, either treated with low concentrations (0.1-1 nM) of extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein or stably transfected with Tat cDNA. Extracellular Tat induced a rapid increase of p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and p125FAK-associated PI 3-K activity. By using recombinant mutated Tat proteins, it was found that deletion of amino acids 73-86 encoded by the second exon of the tat gene resulted in a significant decrease of the ability of Tat to induce p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation. Paradoxically, mutations in the basic region encoded by the first exon of tat, which is essential for nuclear localization and HIV-1 LTR transactivation, increased the ability of Tat to stimulate p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, in comparison with cells transfected with a control vector, PC12 cells stably transfected with tat cDNA showed greater amounts of p125FAK protein, an increase in p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and higher levels of p125FAK-associated PI 3-K activity. The addition of anti-Tat neutralizing antibody to tat-transfected PC12 cells in culture blocked both the p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and its association with PI 3-K but did not affect the total amount of p125FAK. In conclusion HIV-1 Tat protein enhanced both the expression and the functionality of p1 25FAK in PC12 neuronal cells. Whereas the first event required intracellular Tat, the increased p125FAK phosphorylation was strictly dependent upon extracellular Tat

    Lipid phosphorylation in isolated rat liver nuclei. Synthesis of polyphosphoinositides at subnuclear level.

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    Isolated rat liver nuclei and subnuclear fractions synthesize polyphosphoinositides in vitro in a mode dependent on the presence of nuclear membrane, detergent and exogenous substrates. The nuclear membrane is not essential as a source of lipid kinases, since the addition of exogenous phosphatidylinositol or phosphatidylinositol monophosphate to reaction mixtures lacking membranes restores the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol mono- and bisphosphate, respectively. Inositide phosphorylation is best accomplished by high-salt extracted nuclei and pre-detergent lamina. These data suggest that the nucleus, and especially the nuclear periphery, is a cell compartment in which polyphosphoinositide synthesis occurs; this might be related to the progression of phosphatidylinositol metabolism-dependent signals to the genetic apparatus

    HIV-1 Tat-mediated Inhibition of the Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Expression in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

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    Treatment of dopaminergic rat PC12 cells with human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein or tat cDNA inhibited the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for the dopamine biosynthetic pathway, as well as the production and release of dopamine into the culture medium. Moreover, the Tat addition to PC12 cells up-regulated the expression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), a specific member of the cAMP-responsive element modulator transcription factor family, in a cAMP-dependent manner. In turn, ICER overexpression abrogated the transcription activity of the TH promoter in PC12 cells, strongly suggesting ICER involvement in Tat-mediated inhibition of TH gene expression. In vivo injection of synthetic HIV-1 Tat protein into the striatum of healthy rats induced a subclinical Parkinson's-like disease that became manifested only when the animals were treated with amphetamine. As early as one week postinjection, the histochemical examination of the rat substantia nigra showed a reduced staining of neurons expressing TH followed by a loss of TH(+) neurons at later time points. As Tat protein can be locally released into the central nervous system by HIV-1-infected microglial cells, our findings may contribute to the explanation of the pathogenesis of the motorial abnormalities often reported in HIV-1 seropositive individuals

    The European Reference Genome Atlas: piloting a decentralised approach to equitable biodiversity genomics

    No full text
    A global genome database of all of Earth‚Äôs species diversity could be a treasure trove of scientific discoveries. However, regardless of the major advances in genome sequencing technologies, only a tiny fraction of species have genomic information available. To contribute to a more complete planetary genomic database, scientists and institutions across the world have united under the Earth BioGenome Project (EBP), which plans to sequence and assemble high-quality reference genomes for all ‚ąľ1.5 million recognized eukaryotic species through a stepwise phased approach. As the initiative transitions into Phase II, where 150,000 species are to be sequenced in just four years, worldwide participation in the project will be fundamental to success. As the European node of the EBP, the European Reference Genome Atlas (ERGA) seeks to implement a new decentralised, accessible, equitable and inclusive model for producing high-quality reference genomes, which will inform EBP as it scales. To embark on this mission, ERGA launched a Pilot Project to establish a network across Europe to develop and test the first infrastructure of its kind for the coordinated and distributed reference genome production on 98 European eukaryotic species from sample providers across 33 European countries. Here we outline the process and challenges faced during the development of a pilot infrastructure for the production of reference genome resources, and explore the effectiveness of this approach in terms of high-quality reference genome production, considering also equity and inclusion. The outcomes and lessons learned during this pilot provide a solid foundation for ERGA while offering key learnings to other transnational and national genomic resource projects
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