32 research outputs found

    Regulation of Sulfotransferase and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Gene Expression by the PPARs

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    During phase II metabolism, a substrate is rendered more hydrophilic through the covalent attachment of an endogenous molecule. The cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) families of enzymes account for the majority of phase II metabolism in humans and animals. In general, phase II metabolism is considered to be a detoxication process, as sulfate and glucuronide conjugates are more amenable to excretion and elimination than are the parent substrates. However, certain products of phase II metabolism (e.g., unstable sulfate conjugates) are genotoxic. Members of the nuclear receptor superfamily are particularly important regulators of SULT and UGT gene transcription. In metabolically active tissues, increasing evidence supports a major role for lipid-sensing transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), in the regulation of rodent and human SULT and UGT gene expression. This review summarizes current information regarding the regulation of these two major classes of phase II metabolizing enzyme by PPARs

    DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF INDIVIDUAL SULFOTRANSFERASE ISOFORMS BY PHENOBARBITAL IN MALE RAT LIVER

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    This paper is available online at http://www.dmd.org ABSTRACT: Xenobiotics that induce the cytochromes P450 also produce changes in rat hepatic sulfotransferase (SULT) gene expression. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 3 consecutive days with doses of phenobarbital (PB) that induce cytochrome P450 2B1/2 expression. The effects of PB treatment on hepatic aryl SULT (SULT1) and hydroxysteroid SULT (SULT2) mRNA and immunoreactive protein levels and on mRNA expression of individual SULT1 and SULT2 enzyme isoforms were characterized. PB suppressed SULT1A1 mRNA levels, increased the expression of the SULT-Dopa/tyrosine isoform, and did not produce significant changes in SULT1C1 and SULT1E2 mRNA expression. In rats injected with the highest test dose of PB (100 mg/kg), hepatic SULT1A1 mRNA levels were decreased to ϳ42% of control levels and SULT-Dopa/tyrosine mRNA levels were increased to ϳ417% of vehicle-treated control levels. Like the SULT1 subfamily, individual members of the SULT2 gene subfamily were differentially affected by PB treatment. PB (35, 80, and 100 mg/kg) suppressed SULT20/21 mRNA expression to ϳ61, ϳ30, and ϳ41% of vehicle-treated control levels, respectively. In contrast, SULT60 mRNA levels were increased to ϳ162% of control levels and SULT40/41 mRNA levels were increased to ϳ416% of vehicletreated control levels in rats treated with 100 mg/kg PB. These studies support a complex role for PB-mediated effects on the SULT multigene family in rat liver. Because individual SULT1 and SULT2 enzyme isoforms are known to metabolize a variety of potentially toxic substrates, varied responses to PB among members of the SULT multigene family might have important implications for xenobiotic hepatotoxicity

    A Review of Volatile Organic Compound Contamination in Post-Industrial Urban Centers: Reproductive Health Implications Using a Detroit Lens

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    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a group of aromatic or chlorinated organic chemicals commonly found in manufactured products that have high vapor pressure, and thus vaporize readily at room temperature. While airshed VOCs are well studied and have provided insights into public health issues, we suggest that belowground VOCs and the related vapor intrusion process could be equally or even more relevant to public health. The persistence, movement, remediation, and human health implications of subsurface VOCs in urban landscapes remain relatively understudied despite evidence of widespread contamination. This review explores the state of the science of subsurface movement and remediation of VOCs through groundwater and soils, the linkages between these poorly understood contaminant exposure pathways and health outcomes based on research in various animal models, and describes the role of these contaminants in human health, focusing on birth outcomes, notably low birth weight and preterm birth. Finally, this review provides recommendations for future research to address knowledge gaps that are essential for not only tackling health disparities and environmental injustice in post-industrial cities, but also protecting and preserving critical freshwater resources

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19

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    IMPORTANCE Overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) initiation improves outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In an ongoing, adaptive platform randomized clinical trial, 721 critically ill and 58 non–critically ill hospitalized adults were randomized to receive an RAS inhibitor or control between March 16, 2021, and February 25, 2022, at 69 sites in 7 countries (final follow-up on June 1, 2022). INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive open-label initiation of an ACE inhibitor (n = 257), ARB (n = 248), ARB in combination with DMX-200 (a chemokine receptor-2 inhibitor; n = 10), or no RAS inhibitor (control; n = 264) for up to 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was organ support–free days, a composite of hospital survival and days alive without cardiovascular or respiratory organ support through 21 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. Odds ratios (ORs) greater than 1 represent improved outcomes. RESULTS On February 25, 2022, enrollment was discontinued due to safety concerns. Among 679 critically ill patients with available primary outcome data, the median age was 56 years and 239 participants (35.2%) were women. Median (IQR) organ support–free days among critically ill patients was 10 (–1 to 16) in the ACE inhibitor group (n = 231), 8 (–1 to 17) in the ARB group (n = 217), and 12 (0 to 17) in the control group (n = 231) (median adjusted odds ratios of 0.77 [95% bayesian credible interval, 0.58-1.06] for improvement for ACE inhibitor and 0.76 [95% credible interval, 0.56-1.05] for ARB compared with control). The posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitors and ARBs worsened organ support–free days compared with control were 94.9% and 95.4%, respectively. Hospital survival occurred in 166 of 231 critically ill participants (71.9%) in the ACE inhibitor group, 152 of 217 (70.0%) in the ARB group, and 182 of 231 (78.8%) in the control group (posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitor and ARB worsened hospital survival compared with control were 95.3% and 98.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, among critically ill adults with COVID-19, initiation of an ACE inhibitor or ARB did not improve, and likely worsened, clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0273570
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