550 research outputs found

    The longitudinal association between homelessness, injection drug use, and injection-related risk behavior among persons with a history of injection drug use in Baltimore, MD

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    AbstractBackgroundFew studies have assessed the temporal association between homelessness and injection drug use, and injection-related risk behavior.MethodsAmong a cohort of 1405 current and former injection drug users in follow-up from 2005 to 2009, we used random intercept models to assess the temporal association between homelessness and subsequent injection drug use, and to determine whether the association between homelessness and sustained injection drug use among active injectors differed from the association between homelessness and relapse among those who stopped injecting. We also assessed the association between homelessness and subsequent injection-related risk behavior among participants who injected drugs consecutively across two visits. Homelessness was categorized by duration: none, <1 month, and ≥1 month.ResultsHomelessness was reported on at least one occasion by 532 (38%) participants. The relationship between homelessness and subsequent injection drug use was different for active injectors and those who stopped injecting. Among those who stopped injecting, homelessness was associated with relapse [<1 month: AOR=1.67, 95% CI (1.01, 2.74); ≥1 month: AOR=1.34 95% CI (0.77, 2.33)]. Among active injectors, homelessness was not associated with sustained injection drug use [<1 month: AOR=1.03, 95% CI (0.71, 1.49); ≥1 month: AOR=0.81 95% CI (0.56, 1.17)]. Among those injecting drugs across two consecutive visits, homelessness ≥1 month was associated with subsequent injection-related risk behavior [AOR=1.61, 95% CI (1.06, 2.45)].ConclusionHomelessness appears to be associated with relapse and injection-related risk behavior. Strengthening policies and interventions that prevent homelessness may reduce injection drug use and injection-related risk behaviors

    Injection drug use and patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy use: an analysis of ALIVE, WIHS, and MACS cohorts

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Sustained use of antiretroviral therapy has been consistently shown to be one of the primary predictors of long-term effectiveness. Switching and discontinuation reflect patient and provider decisions that may limit future treatment options. In this study, we utilize data reported at semi-annual study visits from three prospective cohort studies, the AIDS Link to IntraVenous Exposure (ALIVE), the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), to investigate determinants of HAART modification with a particular focus on reported injection drug use (IDU).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Longitudinal data collected between 1996 and 2004 contributed from 2,266 participants (37% with a reported history of IDU) who reported initiating their first HAART regimen during follow-up were utilized. Separate proportional-hazards models were used to identify factors measured prior to HAART-initiation associated with the time to first HAART discontinuation and first switch of components of HAART among continuous HAART users.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The use of PI- vs. NNRTI-based regimens among HAART users with and without any history of IDU was similar over follow-up. The median time to a first report of discontinuation of HAART was 1.1 years for individuals with a history of IDU but 2.5 years for those without a history of IDU and multivariate analyses confirmed overall that individuals with a history of IDU were at greater risk for HAART discontinuation (adj RH = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.03–1.48). However, when restricting to data contributed after 1999, there was no longer any significant increased risk (adj RH = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.81–1.36). After adjusting for pre-HAART health status and prior ARV exposure, individuals who were ethnic/racial minorities, reported an annual income < $10,000/year, and were not employed were at significantly greater risk for HAART discontinuation. The median time to a first change in HAART regimen was approximately 1.5 years after first HAART report and was not elevated among those with a history of IDU (adj RH = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.89–1.34).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our analyses demonstrate that injection drug use by itself does not appear to be an independent risk factor for HAART switching or discontinuation in more recent years. However, as continued HAART use is of paramount importance for long-term control of HIV infection, efforts to improve maintenance to therapy among disadvantaged and minority populations remain greatly needed.</p

    Estimating the Effects of Multiple Time-varying Exposures Using Joint Marginal Structural Models: Alcohol Consumption, Injection Drug Use, and HIV Acquisition

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    The joint effects of multiple exposures on an outcome are frequently of interest in epidemiologic research. In 2001, Hernán, Brumback, and Robins (JASA 2001; 96: 440–448) presented methods for estimating the joint effects of multiple time-varying exposures subject to time-varying confounding affected by prior exposure using joint marginal structural models. Nonetheless, the use of these joint models is rare in the applied literature. Minimal uptake of these joint models, in contrast to the now widely used standard marginal structural model, is due in part to a lack of examples demonstrating the method. In this paper, we review the assumptions necessary for unbiased estimation of joint effects as well as the distinction between interaction and effect measure modification. We demonstrate the use of marginal structural models for estimating the joint effects of alcohol consumption and injection drug use on HIV acquisition, using data from 1,525 injection drug users in the AIDS Link to Intravenous Experience cohort study. In the joint model, the hazard ratio (HR) for heavy drinking in the absence of any drug injections was 1.58 (95% confidence interval= 0.67–3.73). The HR for any drug injections in the absence of heavy drinking was 1.78 (1.10–2.89). The HR for heavy drinking and any drug injections was 2.45 (1.45–4.12). The P values for multiplicative and additive interaction were 0.7620 and 0.9200, respectively, indicating a lack of departure from effects that multiply or add. However, we could not rule out interaction on either scale due to imprecision

    A prospective study of alcohol consumption and HIV acquisition among injection drug users

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    Estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on HIV acquisition while appropriately accounting for confounding by time-varying risk factors

    Determinants of alcohol consumption in HIV-uninfected injection drug users

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    We assess the association between time fixed and time varying participant characteristics and subsequent alcohol consumption in 1,968 injection drug users (median age 37 years, 28% female, 90% African-American) followed semi-annually from 1988 to 2008. Median alcohol consumption was seven drinks per week at study entry (first and third quartile: 1, 26) with 36% reporting binge drinking. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking decreased over follow-up. Older individuals and women reported consuming fewer drinks per week. Higher typical alcohol consumption was reported by those participants who reported in the prior six months: non-injection cocaine use, injection drug use, having one or more sex partners, or among men, a same sex partner. Associations were generally similar for drinks per week and binge drinking. This study demonstrates that in a large urban cohort of persons with a history of injection drug use, risky drug use and sexual risk behavior are associated with subsequent alcohol consumption

    The effect of HIV infection on overdose mortality

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    Objectives: To quantify the association of HIV infection with overdose mortality and explore the potential mechanisms. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: A total of 1927 actively injecting drug users who were HIV seronegative at baseline, of whom 308 later HIV seroconverted, were followed semi-annually for death from 1988 to 2001. Survival analyses using marginal structural and standard Cox models were used to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the risk of overdose mortality. Results: Overdose death rates were higher in HIV-seropositive than HIV-seronegative drug users: 13.9 and 5.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively (P < 0.01). The hazard ratio (HR) was 2.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47, 4.38] for the marginal structural model and 2.06 (95% CI 1.25, 3.38) for the standard Cox model, both adjusted for demographics, drug injection characteristics, alcohol abuse, substance abuse treatment, and sexual orientation. Adjusting for possible time-varying mediators (i.e. drug use, medical conditions and healthcare access) in extended marginal structural models reduced the effect of HIV on overdose mortality by 30% (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.01, 3.30). Abnormal liver function was associated with a higher risk of overdose mortality (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.05, 3.84); adjustment for this further reduced the effect of HIV on overdose mortality. Conclusion: HIV infection was associated with a higher risk of overdose mortality. Drug use behavior, systematic disease and liver damage associated with HIV infection appeared to account for a substantial portion of this association. The data suggest a group to target with interventions to reduce overdose mortality rates.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/40279/2/Wang_The Effect of HIV Infection on Overdose_2005.pd