2,461 research outputs found

    Time-Series Ensemble Photometry and the Search for Variable Stars in the Open Cluster M11

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    This work presents the first large-scale photometric variability survey of the intermediate age (~200 Myr) open cluster M11. Thirteen nights of data over two observing seasons were analyzed (using crowded field and ensemble photometry techniques) to obtain high relative precision photometry. In this study we focus on the detection of candidate member variable stars for follow-up studies. A total of 39 variable stars were detected and can be categorized as follows: 1 irregular (probably pulsating) variable, 6 delta Scuti variables, 14 detached eclipsing binary systems, 17 W UMa variables, and 1 unidentified/candidate variable. While previous proper motion studies allow for cluster membership determination for the brightest stars, we find that membership determination is significantly hampered below V=15,R=15.5 by the large population of field stars overlapping the cluster MS. Of the brightest detected variables that have a high likelihood of cluster membership, we find five systems where further work could help constrain theoretical stellar models, including one potential W UMa member of this young cluster.Comment: 38 pages, 13 figures, accepted for December 2005 AJ, high-resolution version available upon reques

    The powerful outburst in Hercules A

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    The radio source Hercules A resides at the center of a cooling flow cluster of galaxies at redshift z = 0.154. A Chandra X-ray image reveals a shock front in the intracluster medium (ICM) surrounding the radio source, about 160 kpc from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) that hosts it. The shock has a Mach number of 1.65, making it the strongest of the cluster-scale shocks driven by an AGN outburst found so far. The age of the outburst ~5.9e7 y, its energy about 3e61 erg and its mean power ~1.6e46 erg/s. As for the other large AGN outbursts in cooling flow clusters, this outburst overwhelms radiative losses from the ICM of the Hercules A cluster by a factor of ~100. It adds to the case that AGN outbursts are a significant source of preheating for the ICM. Unless the mechanical efficiency of the AGN in Hercules A exceeds 10%, the central black hole must have grown by more than 1.7e8 Msun to power this one outburst.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, accepted by ApJ

    Systematic study of X-ray Cavities in the brightest galaxy of the Draco Constellation NGC 6338

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    We present results based on the systematic analysis of currently available Chandra archive data on the brightest galaxy in the Draco constellation NGC 6338, in order to investigate the properties of the X-ray cavities. In the central ~6 kpc, at least a two and possibly three, X-ray cavities are evident. All these cavities are roughly of ellipsoidal shapes and show a decrement in the surface brightness of several tens of percent. In addition to these cavities, a set of X-ray bright filaments are also noticed which are spatially coincident with the H{\alpha} filaments over an extent of 15 kpc. The H{\alpha} emission line filaments are perpendicular to the X- ray cavities. Spectroscopic analysis of the hot gas in the filaments and cavities reveal that the X-ray filaments are cooler than the gas contained in the cavities. The emission line ratios and the extended, asymmetric nature of the H{\alpha} emission line filaments seen in this system require a harder ionizing source than that produced by star formation and/or young, massive stars. Radio emission maps derived from the analysis of 1.4 GHz VLA FIRST survey data failed to show any association of these X-ray cavities with radio jets, however, the cavities are filled by radio emission. The total power of the cavities is 17\times 1042 erg s-1 and the ratio of the radio luminosity to cavity power is ~ 10-4, implying that most of the jet power is mechanical.Comment: The paper contains 12 figures and 3 tables, Accepted 2011 December 7 for publication in MNRA

    Labour efficiency on-farm

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    End of project reportImprovements in milking efficiency have a greater influence than any other aspect of the dairy farmers work on overall farm labour inputs (Whipp, 1992). In order to facilitate the examination of milking process labour inputs, the milking process may be divided into the following three components: herding pre and post milking (transfer of cows to and from the milking parlour); milking (milking tasks / work routines within the parlour); and washing (washing of milking machine and yard). Meanwhile, within milking specifically, the number of cows milked per operator per hour is the best measure of both the performance of the operator and the milking installation (Clough, 1978). This is affected by the following three factors: the milking times of the cows, the number and arrangement of the milking units, and the operator’s work routine (Whipp, 1992). The addition of extra milking units will only increase milking performance if the operator has idle time during milking (Hansen, 1999)

    Chandra X-ray Observations of the Hydra A Cluster: An Interaction Between the Radio Source and the X-Ray-Emitting Gas

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    We present Chandra X-ray Observations of the Hydra A cluster of galaxies, and we report the discovery of structure in the central 80 kpc of the cluster's X-ray-emitting gas. The most remarkable structures are depressions in the X-ray surface brightness, 2535\sim 25-35 kpc diameter, that are coincident with Hydra A's radio lobes. The depressions are nearly devoid of X-ray-emitting gas, and there is no evidence for shock-heated gas surrounding the radio lobes. We suggest the gas within the surface brightness depressions was displaced as the radio lobes expanded subsonically, leaving cavities in the hot atmosphere. The gas temperature declines from 4 keV at 70 kpc to 3 keV in the inner 20 kpc of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and the cooling time of the gas is 600\sim 600 Myr in the inner 10 kpc. These properties are consistent with the presence of a \sim 34 \msunyr cooling flow within a 70 kpc radius. Bright X-ray emission is present in the BCG surrounding a recently-accreted disk of nebular emission and young stars. The star formation rate is commensurate with the cooling rate of the hot gas within the volume of the disk, although the sink for the material cooling at larger radii remains elusive.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures; submitted to ApJ Letter

    Duration of the Electromyographic Silent Period Following the Jaw-Jerk Reflex in Human Subjects

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    During voluntary jaw clenching, a sharp tap to the menton of the mandible resulted in a transitory silent period (pause) in the electromyographic activity of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. Factors that could influence the duration of the silent period were studied, including direction and magnitude of the stimulus applied by the operator, the amount of muscular effort exerted by the subjects, and varying occlusal vertical dimensions. Decreased isometric muscle force resulted in statistically significant increases in silent period durations.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67989/2/10.1177_00220345770560061501.pd

    Simulation of the Zero Temperature Behavior of a 3-Dimensional Elastic Medium

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    We have performed numerical simulation of a 3-dimensional elastic medium, with scalar displacements, subject to quenched disorder. We applied an efficient combinatorial optimization algorithm to generate exact ground states for an interface representation. Our results indicate that this Bragg glass is characterized by power law divergences in the structure factor S(k)Ak3S(k)\sim A k^{-3}. We have found numerically consistent values of the coefficient AA for two lattice discretizations of the medium, supporting universality for AA in the isotropic systems considered here. We also examine the response of the ground state to the change in boundary conditions that corresponds to introducing a single dislocation loop encircling the system. Our results indicate that the domain walls formed by this change are highly convoluted, with a fractal dimension df=2.60(5)d_f=2.60(5). We also discuss the implications of the domain wall energetics for the stability of the Bragg glass phase. As in other disordered systems, perturbations of relative strength δ\delta introduce a new length scale Lδ1/ζL^* \sim \delta^{-1/\zeta} beyond which the perturbed ground state becomes uncorrelated with the reference (unperturbed) ground state. We have performed scaling analysis of the response of the ground state to the perturbations and obtain ζ=0.385(40)\zeta = 0.385(40). This value is consistent with the scaling relation ζ=df/2θ\zeta=d_f/2- \theta, where θ\theta characterizes the scaling of the energy fluctuations of low energy excitations.Comment: 20 pages, 13 figure

    Temporal Trends in the Use of Drug-eluting Stents for Approved and Off-label Indications: A Longitudinal Analysis of a Large Multicenter Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry

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    Background We sought to examine the temporal variations in the rate of both bare-metal stent (BMS) and drug-eluting stent (DES) use for off-label indications after the reports of an increased risk of very late stent thrombosis in patients with DES at the 2006 meeting of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Hypothesis To determine whether the decrease in use of DES has affected both on and off-label indications. Methods The study cohort included patients undergoing coronary intervention in a large regional registry, the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2). Patient demographic and clinical characteristics for patients with DES in the third quarter of 2006 (pre-ESC) were compared to those from the fourth quarter of 2008 (post-guideline changes). Use of DES for off-label indications, such as ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in-stent restenosis (ISR), and saphenous vein graft (SVG) interventions, were evaluated. Results The overall deployment of DES fell sharply from 83% pre-ESC to a plateau of 58% in the first quarter of 2008. This corresponded to a rise in BMS use, while angioplasty procedures stayed the same. The STEMI subgroup showed the most dramatic change, from 78% to only 36%. Off-label use in SVGs showed a similar trend, from 74% to 43%. Drug-eluting stent deployment for ISR was less affected, though it also fell 25% (from 79%–56%). Conclusions The use of DES has fallen dramatically from June 2006 to December 2008, particularly for nonapproved indications. Our study provides a real-world assessment of contemporary change in DES use in response to the presentation of negative observational studies. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/65057/1/20717_ftp.pd

    Damaged beyond repair? Characterising the damage zone of a fault late in its interseismic cycle, the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

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    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of drill-core, recovered from the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) through New Zealand\u27s Alpine Fault, provide an excellent opportunity to study the damage zone of a plate-bounding continental scale fault, late in its interseismic cycle. Documentation of the intermediate-macro scale damage zone structures observed in the CT images show that there is no increase in the density of these structures towards the fault\u27s principal slip zones (PSZs), at least within the interval sampled, which is 30 m above and below the PSZs. This is in agreement with independent analysis using borehole televiewer data. Instead, we conclude the density of damage zone structures to correspond to lithology. We find that 72% of fractures are fully healed, by a combination of clays, calcite and quartz, with an additional 24% partially healed. This fracture healing is consistent with the Alpine Fault\u27s late interseismic state, and the fact that the interval of damage zone sampled coincides with an alteration zone, an interval of extensive fluid-rock interaction. These fractures do not impose a reduction of P-wave velocity, as measured by wireline methods. Outside the alteration zone there is indirect evidence of less extensive fracture healing.DFDP-1 was funded by: GNS Science; Victoria University of Wellington; the University of Otago; the University of Auckland; the University of Canterbury; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the University of Bremen; Natural Environment Research Council grants NE/J024449/1, NE/G524160/1 and NE/H012486/1 and the University Of Liverpool; and the Marsden Fund of the Royal Society of New Zealand.2018-07-2
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