43 research outputs found

    Effect of monensin inclusion in supplements for cattle consuming low quality tropical forage

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    A pen feeding study was carried out over 70 days to determine the effects of monensin (M) inclusion in two commercial supplements designed to provide different planes of nutrition to recently weaned steers. Thirty Bos indicus crossbred steers (191.4卤s.d. 7.1 kg) were individually fed a low quality pangola grass hay (57 g crude protein/kg DM; 497 g/kg DM digestibility) ad libitum (Control) with either a urea/molasses-based supplement of Rumevite Maxi-graze 60 Block (B), fed at 100 g/day, or grain-based Rumevite Weaner Pellets (WP), fed at 7.5 g/kg liveweight (W).day, both with and without M, viz. B, B+M, WP and WP+M, respectively. There were no significant interactions between supplement type and M inclusion for any measurement. Growth rates (main effects) averaged 0.17, 0.35 and 0.58 kg/day for the Control, B and WP supplements, respectively, with all means different (

    Geochemistry of Sandstones from the Upper Cretaceous Sillakkudi Formation, Cauvery Basin, Southern India: Implication for Provenance

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    Major, trace and rare earth elements (REE) composition of sandstones from the Upper Cretaceous Sillakkudi Formation, Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin were studied to decipher their weathering and provenance history. Texturally, these sandstones are immature, poorly sorted and grain supported. Abundance of feldspars especially, plagioclase indicates rapid deposition of sediments from a nearby source rocks. Using the geochemical classification diagram the Sillakkudi sandstones are classified as fe-sand, quartz arenite, litharenite, sub-litharenite, sub-arkose, arkose, and wacke types,which is also supported by the petrography study. The transition trace elements like Co, Ni, and V are higher in theSillakkudi sandstones than upper continental crust (UCC) values. However, the Sillakkudi sandstones are lower in Cr (mean ~21) content than average UCC value (~ 35). The poor correlation between Cr and Ni (r = 0.08, number of samples n = 20) imply that these sandstones were derived from felsic source rocks. Similarly, the Eu/Eu* (0.35-1.73), La/Sc (1.93-9.36), Th/Sc (0.41-6.57), Th/Co (0.14-5.01), Th/Cr (0.23-2.94), and Cr/Th (0.34-4.28) ratios support a felsic source for the Sillakkudi sandstones.The significant enrichment of Zr, Hf, and Th in fe-sand, sub-arkose and litharenite could be related to the presence of heavy minerals, especially zircon. However, the zircon geochemistry did not affectthe REE distribution and its patterns in the Sillakkudi sandstones. The Chondrite normalized REE patterns of Sillakkudi sandstones are characterized by relatively flat HREE (Gd/YbCN = ~ 0.73-2.41; subscript CN refers to chondrite normalized value), enriched LREE (La/SmCN = ~ 3.39-5.82) and negative Eu anomaly (mean value Eu/Eu* = 0.80). The Gd/YbCN ratios (~0.73-2.50) are less than 2.5, which suggest that these Sillakkudi sandstones were derived from the less HREE depleted source rocks. The comparison of REE patterns and its Eu anomalies to the source rocks reveals that the Sillakkudi sandstones received a major contribution of sediments from Dharwar craton

    Material Circulation through Time: Chemical Differentiation Within the Mantle and Secular Variation of Temperature and Composition of the Mantle

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    Navier-Stokes transport coefficients of dd-dimensional granular binary mixtures at low density

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    The Navier-Stokes transport coefficients for binary mixtures of smooth inelastic hard disks or spheres under gravity are determined from the Boltzmann kinetic theory by application of the Chapman-Enskog method for states near the local homogeneous cooling state. It is shown that the Navier-Stokes transport coefficients are not affected by the presence of gravity. As in the elastic case, the transport coefficients of the mixture verify a set of coupled linear integral equations that are approximately solved by using the leading terms in a Sonine polynomial expansion. The results reported here extend previous calculations [V. Garz\'o and J. W. Dufty, Phys. Fluids {\bf 14}, 1476 (2002)] to an arbitrary number of dimensions. To check the accuracy of the Chapman-Enskog results, the inelastic Boltzmann equation is also numerically solved by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to evaluate the diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients for hard disks. The comparison shows a good agreement over a wide range of values of the coefficients of restitution and the parameters of the mixture (masses and sizes).Comment: 6 figures, to be published in J. Stat. Phy


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    ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of increasing intake of barley grain or barley grain plus protein as supplement on microbial crude protein (MCP) production, efficiency of microbial crude protein production (eMCP) in the rumen of Brahman steers consuming low quality forage. Ten steers were used and allocated to two supplement groups namely barley grain (B) and barley plus protein (BP). The experimental design was two incomplete 5x5 Latin Squares, each with three runs. Each run consisted of a 21 d adaptation and 7 d collection period. Steers received Green panic hay ad libitum with one of five levels of B or BP (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0% of body weight per day (W/d)). MCP production in the rumen increased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing intake of B or BP supplements. The MCP in the rumen increased linearly (P<0.05) and quadratically (P<0.05) by increased B and BP intakes, respectively. Generally, steers supplemened with BP had greater (P<0.01) MCP production and eMCP in the rumen than B supplemented steers. The concentration of rumen NH3-N (samples taken at 3 h after feeding) increased linearly with increased B or BP intakes. For samples taken at 24 h post feeding, the concentration of rumen NH3-N was not changed (P>0.05) with increased B intake but increased linearly (P<0.01) with increased BP intake. Ruminal pH at 3 h after feeding decreased linearly (P<0.05) due to increased B intake, but was not altered (P>0.05) by increased BP intake. For samples taken at 24 h post feeding in contrast, was not influenced (P>0.05) by intake of B or BP. It was concluded that although both supplements increased MCP production and eMCP in the rumen of steers receiving low quality forage, BP supplementation had much more beneficial effect than B supplementation. Keywords: barley, protein, rumen, steer, forag