334 research outputs found

    A Multi-disciplinary Commentary on Preclinical Research to investigate Vascular Contributions to Dementia

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    Although dementia research has been dominated by Alzheimer's disease (AD), most dementia in older people is now recognised to be due to mixed pathologies, usually combining vascular and AD brain pathology. Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), which encompasses vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia. Models of VCI have been delayed by limited understanding of the underlying aetiology and pathogenesis. This review by a multidisciplinary, diverse (in terms of sex, geography and career stage), cross-institute team provides a perspective on limitations to current VCI models and recommendations for improving translation and reproducibility. We discuss reproducibility, clinical features of VCI and corresponding assessments in models, human pathology, bioinformatics approaches, and data sharing. We offer recommendations for future research, particularly focusing on small vessel disease as a main underpinning disorder

    Microglia‐leucocyte axis in cerebral ischaemia and inflammation in the developing brain

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    Development of the Central Nervous System (CNS) is reliant on the proper function of numerous intricately orchestrated mechanisms that mature independently, including constant communication between the CNS and the peripheral immune system. This review summarizes experimental knowledge of how cerebral ischaemia in infants and children alters physiological communication between leucocytes, brain immune cells, microglia and the neurovascular unit (NVU)-the "microglia-leucocyte axis"-and contributes to acute and long-term brain injury. We outline physiological development of CNS barriers in relation to microglial and leucocyte maturation and the plethora of mechanisms by which microglia and peripheral leucocytes communicate during postnatal period, including receptor-mediated and intracellular inflammatory signalling, lipids, soluble factors and extracellular vesicles. We focus on the "microglia-leucocyte axis" in rodent models of most common ischaemic brain diseases in the at-term infants, hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and focal arterial stroke and discuss commonalities and distinctions of immune-neurovascular mechanisms in neonatal and childhood stroke compared to stroke in adults. Given that hypoxic and ischaemic brain damage involve Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, we discuss the modulatory role of viral and bacterial TLR2/3/4-mediated infection in HIE, perinatal and childhood stroke. Furthermore, we provide perspective of the dynamics and contribution of the axis in cerebral ischaemia depending on the CNS maturational stage at the time of insult, and modulation independently and in consort by individual axis components and in a sex dependent ways. Improved understanding on how to modify crosstalk between microglia and leucocytes will aid in developing age-appropriate therapies for infants and children who suffered cerebral ischaemia

    A Review of Translational Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Human and Rodent Experimental Models of Small Vessel Disease

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    UK consensus on pre-clinical vascular cognitive impairment functional outcomes assessment: Questionnaire and workshop proceedings.

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    Assessment of outcome in preclinical studies of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is heterogenous. Through an ARUK Scottish Network supported questionnaire and workshop (mostly UK-based researchers), we aimed to determine underlying variability and what could be implemented to overcome identified challenges. Twelve UK VCI research centres were identified and invited to complete a questionnaire and attend a one-day workshop. Questionnaire responses demonstrated agreement that outcome assessments in VCI preclinical research vary by group and even those common across groups, may be performed differently. From the workshop, six themes were discussed: issues with preclinical models, reasons for choosing functional assessments, issues in interpretation of functional assessments, describing and reporting functional outcome assessments, sharing resources and expertise, and standardization of outcomes. Eight consensus points emerged demonstrating broadly that the chosen assessment should reflect the deficit being measured, and therefore that one assessment does not suit all models; guidance/standardisation on recording VCI outcome reporting is needed and that uniformity would be aided by a platform to share expertise, material, protocols and procedures thus reducing heterogeneity and so increasing potential for collaboration, comparison and replication. As a result of the workshop, UK wide consensus statements were agreed and future priorities for preclinical research identified

    Perceived Quality of Artificial Intelligence in Smart Service Systems: A Structured Approach

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    Smart Service Systems are becoming increasingly important in almost all industries and areas of life. In order to make use of data from the Internet of Things for individualizing and automatizing service offerings, Artificial intelligence (AI) is a key technology. However, only little is known about how users and potential customers perceive quality of these AI-based Smart Services and how companies can develop them accordingly. To this end, our paper presents a framework concept for addressing quality of Smart Services systematically. The framework integrates known and novel quality aspects and thus supports a systematic and quality-focused development. In addition, our paper presents exemplary AI-relevant quality aspects in more detail. First of all, AI-based Smart Service Systems will be characterized in more detail and existing quality concepts will be presented in order to enable a holistic quality assessment.DAA

    First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole

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    When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study this phenomenon, we have assembled the Event Horizon Telescope, a global very long baseline interferometry array observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. This allows us to reconstruct event-horizon-scale images of the supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. We have resolved the central compact radio source as an asymmetric bright emission ring with a diameter of 42 ± 3 ÎŒas, which is circular and encompasses a central depression in brightness with a flux ratio 10:1. The emission ring is recovered using different calibration and imaging schemes, with its diameter and width remaining stable over four different observations carried out in different days. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. The asymmetry in brightness in the ring can be explained in terms of relativistic beaming of the emission from a plasma rotating close to the speed of light around a black hole. We compare our images to an extensive library of ray-traced general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black holes and derive a central mass of M = (6.5 ± 0.7) × 109 Me. Our radiowave observations thus provide powerful evidence for the presence of supermassive black holes in centers of galaxies and as the central engines of active galactic nuclei. They also present a new tool to explore gravity in its most extreme limit and on a mass scale that was so far not accessible

    First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation

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    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of ~1.3 mm, EHT angular resolution (λ/D) is ~25 ÎŒas, which is sufficient to resolve nearby supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their event horizons. With this capability, the EHT scientific goals are to probe general relativistic effects in the strong-field regime and to study accretion and relativistic jet formation near the black hole boundary. In this Letter we describe the system design of the EHT, detail the technology and instrumentation that enable observations, and provide measures of its performance. Meeting the EHT science objectives has required several key developments that have facilitated the robust extension of the VLBI technique to EHT observing wavelengths and the production of instrumentation that can be deployed on a heterogeneous array of existing telescopes and facilities. To meet sensitivity requirements, high-bandwidth digital systems were developed that process data at rates of 64 gigabit s−1, exceeding those of currently operating cm-wavelength VLBI arrays by more than an order of magnitude. Associated improvements include the development of phasing systems at array facilities, new receiver installation at several sites, and the deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards to ensure coherent data capture across the array. These efforts led to the coordination and execution of the first Global EHT observations in 2017 April, and to event-horizon-scale imaging of the supermassive black hole candidate in M87
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