1,528 research outputs found

    Characterization of granite matrix porosity and pore-space geometry by in situ and laboratory methods

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    Most available studies of interconnected matrix porosity of crystalline rocks are based on laboratory investigations; that is, work on samples that have undergone stress relaxation and were affected by drilling and sample preparation. The extrapolation of the results to in situ conditions is therefore associated with considerable uncertainty, and this was the motivation to conduct the ‘in situ Connected Porosity' experiment at the Grimsel Test Site (Central Swiss Alps). An acrylic resin doped with fluorescent agents was used to impregnate the microporous granitic matrix in situ around an injection borehole, and samples were obtained by overcoring. The 3-D structure of the pore-space, represented by microcracks, was studied by U-stage fluorescence microscopy. Petrophysical methods, including the determination of porosity, permeability and P-wave velocity, were also applied. Investigations were conducted both on samples that were impregnated in situ and on non-impregnated samples, so that natural features could be distinguished from artefacts. The investigated deformed granites display complex microcrack populations representing a polyphase deformation at varying conditions. The crack population is dominated by open cleavage cracks in mica and grain boundary cracks. The porosity of non-impregnated samples lies slightly above 1 per cent, which is 2-2.5 times higher than the in situ porosity obtained for impregnated samples. Measurements of seismic velocities (Vp) on spherical rock samples as a function of confining pressure, spatial direction and water saturation for both non-impregnated and impregnated samples provide further constraints on the distinction between natural and induced crack types. The main conclusions are that (1) an interconnected network of microcracks exists in the whole granitic matrix, irrespective of the distance to ductile and brittle shear zones, and (2) conventional laboratory methods overestimate the matrix porosity. Calculations of contaminant transport through fractured media often rely on matrix diffusion as a retardation mechanis

    Impact of strengthening fluids on roughness of 3D printed models

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    For some applications, 3D printed parts usually do not have satisfactory mechanical properties, so to broaden their usage, additive technologies should be combined with the well-known metallurgical processes, such as investment and others casting techniques. 3D printing developers persistently introduce new base materials and strengthening fluids which may cause different surface roughness. Therefore, in this paper, the authors have tested the roughness of 3D printed samples strengthened with common, but also with alternative fluids. Measurements proved that fluids do have significant influence on the roughness

    Sequential fissions of heavy nuclear systems

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    In Xe+Sn central collisions from 12 to 20 MeV/A measured with the INDRA 4π\pi multidetector, the three-fragment exit channel occurs with a significant cross section. In this contribution, we show that these fragments arise from two successive binary splittings of a heavy composite system. Strong Coulomb proximity effects are observed in the three-fragment final state. By comparison with Coulomb trajectory calculations, we show that the time scale between the consecutive break-ups decreases with increasing bombarding energy, becoming compatible with quasi-simultaneous multifragmentation above 18 MeV/A.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, contribution to conference proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Nuclear fission and Fission-Product Spectroscop