5,204 research outputs found

    A Model for Research-Based Mentorship and Professional Development

    Get PDF
    This article has no abstract. It serves as the editorial/overview for the special issue on mentorship. However, rather than simply introducing the special issue, a mentorship model is provided. As such, a commentary article type was selected

    Groundwater Thresholds for Root Decomposition and the Relation to Barrier Island Ecological State Changes

    Get PDF
    Barrier islands off the eastern shore of Virginia exhibit distinct habitats that abruptly transition between periodically brackish/freshwater marshes, wooded swales, and sparsely vegetated dunes. There is strong evidence that the plant communities and ecosystem processes occurring in each habitat are primarily influenced by nutrient availability and the distance between two of the three free surfaces: land and freshwater. At the Virginia Coast Reserve-Long Term Ecological Research Site in Virginia, USA, thresholds to belowground decomposition rates were identified by measuring decay of native roots and rhizomes at 32 elevations in relation to mean annual groundwater levels (-0.356 – 1.937 m). Negative exponential decay rates (k = 0.310 – 0.915 yr-1) varied according to average distance to the freshwater free surface, with lowest decay occurring in low elevation/anoxic conditions (marsh, and bottom soils of a wooded swale), and the highest decay occurring at mid to high elevations (upper soils in wooded swales and all dune sites). The majority of variance in decay rates can be explained by mean annual depth to the freshwater free surface (r2 = 0.78). Locations with mean annual groundwater depths greater than 1 m appear substantially less affected by fluctuations in groundwater levels (r2 = 0.09) than locations nearer to groundwater (r2 = 0.83). Belowground decay was more rapid from 0-20 cm compared to 20-40 cm (p \u3c 0.05) and was divided into 3 groups (low, moderate, and high decay) that correspond to the three interior barrier island ecological states. Results from this study indicate a strong relationship between decay rate dependence on groundwater levels and state changes on a barrier island

    Gordon Brown's misplaced Smithian appeal : the eclipse of sympathy in changing British welfare norms

    Get PDF
    Gordon Brown has eagerly lauded his fellow Kirkcaldy citizen, Adam Smith, as his main policy inspiration. This article tests the rigour of such a claim by matching Brown's promotion of Smithian ‘sympathy’ as the centrepiece of his programme for government with the changes introduced by his Treasury to the British welfare model. In the 1970s, Thomas Wilson showed that the traditions of the post-war British welfare state were compatible with a modified form of Smithian sympathy socialised at the level of the state. New Labour has set about reforming the welfare model with respect to both its underlying institutions and the basic subjectivities of its recipients. I show that Brown's substantive preference for an asset-based system of welfare moves those subjectivities away from the ‘relational self’ of Smithian sympathy and towards a much more ‘autonomous self’. Consequently, I conclude that it is stretching Smith's concept of sympathy too far, even in a modified socialised form, to associate it with New Labour's asset-based system of welfare

    Evidence-Based Programming for Older Adults

    Get PDF
    There is increased world-wide concern about the impact of multiple chronic conditions, especially among the rapidly aging population. Simultaneously, over the past decade there has been an emergence of state-wide and national initiatives to reduce the burden of chronic conditions that draw upon the translation of evidence-based programs (EPB) into community practice. Yet, little has been written about the national and international implementation, dissemination, and sustainability of such programs. This Research Topic features articles about EBPs for older adults, including a range of articles that focus on the infrastructure needed to widely disseminate EBP as well as individual participant impacts on physical, mental, and social aspects of health and well-being. Using a pragmatic research perspective, this Research Topic will advance knowledge that aims to enhance practice, inform policy and build systems of support and delivery in regard to the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of evidence-based interventions for older adults. The focus is on knowledge transfer rather than knowledge generation but with a dual emphasis on the dissemination and sustainability of EBP that have been tested and shown effective as well as the adaptation of practice-based interventions into evidence-based programs. This Research Topic draws upon grand-scale efforts to deliver these programs, and include both U.S. as well as international examples. Commentaries discuss processes in the development and measurement of EBP and reflect perspectives from program developers and major national and regional funders of EBP as well as professionals and practitioners in the field. The full-length articles focus on four major programmatic areas: (1) chronic disease self-management programs; (2) fall prevention programs; (3) general wellness and physical activity programs; and (4) mental health programs. Additionally, articles are included to discuss cross-cutting issues related to building partnerships and the research infrastructure for the implementation, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence-based programming. The intent of this Research Topic is to enhance practice, inform policy, and build systems of support and delivery for EBP. It is written for a diverse audience and contains practical implications and recommendations for introducing, delivering, and sustaining EBP in a multitude of settings

    Validation of evidence-Based Fall Prevention Programs for adults with intellectual and/or developmental disorders: a modified otago exercise Program

    Get PDF
    Introduction: Evidence-based fall prevention (EBFP) programs significantly decrease fall risk, falls, and fall-related injuries in community-dwelling older adults. To date, EBFP programs are only validated for use among people with normal cognition and, therefore, are not evidence-based for adults with intellectual and/or developmental disorders (IDD) such as Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, cerebral vascular accident, or traumatic brain injury. Background: Adults with IDD experience not only a higher rate of falls than their community-dwelling, cognitively intact peers but also higher rates and earlier onset of chronic diseases, also known to increase fall risk. Adults with IDD experience many barriers to health care and health promotion programs. As the lifespan for people with IDD continues to increase, issues of aging (including falls with associated injury) are on the rise and require effective and efficient prevention. Methods: A modified group-based version of the Otago Exercise Program (OEP) was developed and implemented at a worksite employing adults with IDD in Montana. Participants were tested pre- and post-intervention using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Stopping Elderly Accidents Deaths and Injuries (STEADI) tool kit. Participants participated in progressive once weekly, 1-h group exercise classes and home programs over a 7-week period. Discharge planning with consumers and caregivers included home exercise, walking, and an optional home assessment. Results: Despite the limited number of participants (n = 15) and short length of participation, improvements were observed in the 30-s Chair Stand Test, 4-Stage Balance Test, and 2-Minute Walk Test. Additionally, three individuals experienced an improvement in ambulation independence. Participants reported no falls during the study period. Discussion: Promising results of this preliminary project underline the need for further study of this modified OEP among adults with IDD. Future multicenter study should include more participants in diverse geographic regions with longer lengths of participation and follow-up
    • …