1,655 research outputs found

    The use of multilayer network analysis in animal behaviour

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    Network analysis has driven key developments in research on animal behaviour by providing quantitative methods to study the social structures of animal groups and populations. A recent formalism, known as \emph{multilayer network analysis}, has advanced the study of multifaceted networked systems in many disciplines. It offers novel ways to study and quantify animal behaviour as connected 'layers' of interactions. In this article, we review common questions in animal behaviour that can be studied using a multilayer approach, and we link these questions to specific analyses. We outline the types of behavioural data and questions that may be suitable to study using multilayer network analysis. We detail several multilayer methods, which can provide new insights into questions about animal sociality at individual, group, population, and evolutionary levels of organisation. We give examples for how to implement multilayer methods to demonstrate how taking a multilayer approach can alter inferences about social structure and the positions of individuals within such a structure. Finally, we discuss caveats to undertaking multilayer network analysis in the study of animal social networks, and we call attention to methodological challenges for the application of these approaches. Our aim is to instigate the study of new questions about animal sociality using the new toolbox of multilayer network analysis.Comment: Thoroughly revised; title changed slightl

    Symmetry Protected Josephson Supercurrents in Three-Dimensional Topological Insulators

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    Coupling the surface state of a topological insulator (TI) to an s-wave superconductor is predicted to produce the long-sought Majorana quasiparticle excitations. However, superconductivity has not been measured in surface states when the bulk charge carriers are fully depleted, i.e., in the true topological regime that is relevant for investigating Majorana modes. Here, we report measurements of DC Josephson effects in TI-superconductor junctions as the chemical potential is moved from the bulk bands into the band gap, or through the true topological regime characterized by the presence of only surface currents. We examine the relative behavior of the system at different bulk/surface ratios, determining the effects of strong bulk/surface mixing, disorder, and magnetic field. We compare our results to 3D quantum transport simulations to conclude that the supercurrent is largely carried by surface states, due to the inherent topology of the bands, and that it is robust against disorder

    Thermal modeling of the respiratory turbinates in arctic and subtropical seals

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    Mammals possess complex structures in their nasal cavities known as respiratory turbinate bones, which help the animal to conserve body heat and water during respiratory gas exchange. We considered the function of the maxilloturbinates of two species of seals, one arctic (Erignathus barbatus), one subtropical (Monachus monachus). By means of a thermo-hydrodynamic model that describes the heat and water exchange in the turbinate region we are able to reproduce the measured values of expired air temperatures in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), a species for which experimental data are available. At the lowest environmental temperatures, however, this is only possible in the arctic seal, and only if we allow for the possibility of ice forming on the outermost turbinate region. At the same time the model predicts that for the arctic seals, the inhaled air is brought to deep body temperature and humidity conditions in passing the maxilloturbinates. The modeling shows that heat and water conservation go together in the sense that one effect implies the other, and that the conservation is most efficient and most flexible in the typical environment of both species. By controlling the blood flow through the turbinates the arctic seal is able to vary the heat and water conservation substantially at its average habitat temperatures, but not at temperatures around −40 °C. The subtropical species has simpler maxilloturbinates, and our model predicts that it is unable to bring inhaled air to deep body conditions, even in its natural environment, without some congestion of the vascular mucosa covering the maxilloturbinates. Physiological control of both blood flow rate and mucosal congestion is expected to have profound effects on the heat exchange function of the maxilloturbinates in seals