46 research outputs found

    Rule Based Transliteration Scheme for English to Punjabi

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    Machine Transliteration has come out to be an emerging and a very important research area in the field of machine translation. Transliteration basically aims to preserve the phonological structure of words. Proper transliteration of name entities plays a very significant role in improving the quality of machine translation. In this paper we are doing machine transliteration for English-Punjabi language pair using rule based approach. We have constructed some rules for syllabification. Syllabification is the process to extract or separate the syllable from the words. In this we are calculating the probabilities for name entities (Proper names and location). For those words which do not come under the category of name entities, separate probabilities are being calculated by using relative frequency through a statistical machine translation toolkit known as MOSES. Using these probabilities we are transliterating our input text from English to Punjabi

    Classifier-Based Text Simplification for Improved Machine Translation

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    Machine Translation is one of the research fields of Computational Linguistics. The objective of many MT Researchers is to develop an MT System that produce good quality and high accuracy output translations and which also covers maximum language pairs. As internet and Globalization is increasing day by day, we need a way that improves the quality of translation. For this reason, we have developed a Classifier based Text Simplification Model for English-Hindi Machine Translation Systems. We have used support vector machines and Na\"ive Bayes Classifier to develop this model. We have also evaluated the performance of these classifiers.Comment: In Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Computer Engineering and Applications 201

    Physician behaviour for antimicrobial prescribing for paediatric upper respiratory tract infections: a survey in general practice in Trinidad, West Indies

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    BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are among the most frequent reasons for physician office visits in paediatrics. Despite their predominant viral aetiology, URTIs continue to be treated with antimicrobials. We explored general practitioners' (GPs) prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials in children (≤ 16 years) with URTIs in Trinidad, using the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a reference. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students. RESULTS: The 5 most frequent URTIs presenting in children in general practice, are the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM) in rank order. GPs prescribe at least 25 different antibiotics for these URTIs with significant associations for amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefaclor, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin (p < 0.001). Amoxicillin alone or with clavulanate was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic for all URTIs. Prescribing variations from the CDC recommendations were observed for all URTIs except for AOM (50%), the most common condition for antibiotics. Doctors practicing for >30 years were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold (p = 0.014). Severity (95.7%) and duration of illness (82.5%) influenced doctors' prescribing and over prescribing in general practice was attributed to parent demands (75%) and concern for secondary bacterial infections (70%). Physicians do not request laboratory investigations primarily because they are unnecessary (86%) and the waiting time for results is too long (51%). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics are over prescribed for paediatric URTIs in Trinidad and amoxicillin with co-amoxiclav were preferentially prescribed. Except for AOM, GPs' prescribing varied from the CDC guidelines for drug and duration. Physicians recognise antibiotics are overused and consider parents expecting antibiotics and a concern for secondary bacterial infections are prescribing pressures. Guidelines to manage URTIs, ongoing surveillance programs for antibiotic resistance, public health education on non-antibiotic strategies, and postgraduate education for rational pharmacotherapy in general practice would decrease inappropriate antibiotic use in URTIs

    Antibiotic prescriptions for oral diseases in India: evidence from national prescription data

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    Introduction: The key objective of this research was to describe the prescription rate of various antibiotics for dental problems in India and to study the relevance of the prescriptions by analysing antibiotic types associated with different dental diagnoses, using a large-scale nationally representative dataset. Methods: We used a 12-month period (May 2015 to April 2016) medical audit dataset from IQVIA (formerly IMS Health). We coded the dental diagnosis provided in the medical audit data to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) and the prescribed antibiotics for the diagnosis to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) -2020 classification of the World Health Organization. The primary outcome measure was the medicine prescription rate per 1,000 persons per year (PRPY1000). Results: Our main findings were—403 prescriptions per 1,000 persons per year in the year 2015 -2016 for all dental ailments. Across all ATC level 1 classification, ‘Diseases of hard tissues’ made up the majority of the prescriptions. ‘Beta-lactam’, ‘Penicillin,’ and ‘Cephalosporins’ were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for dental diagnoses followed by ‘Macrolides’ and ‘Quinolones’. ‘Dental caries’, ‘Discoloration of tooth’, and ‘Toothache’ were the most common reasons for ‘Beta-Lactams’ and ‘Penicillin’ prescriptions. Conclusion: To conclude our study reports first ever country (India) level estimates of antibiotic prescription by antibiotic classes, age groups, and ICD-11 classification for dental ailments

    Antibiotic prescriptions for oral diseases in India: evidence from national prescription data

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    IntroductionThe key objective of this research was to describe the prescription rate of various antibiotics for dental problems in India and to study the relevance of the prescriptions by analysing antibiotic types associated with different dental diagnoses, using a large-scale nationally representative dataset.MethodsWe used a 12-month period (May 2015 to April 2016) medical audit dataset from IQVIA (formerly IMS Health). We coded the dental diagnosis provided in the medical audit data to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) and the prescribed antibiotics for the diagnosis to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) -2020 classification of the World Health Organization. The primary outcome measure was the medicine prescription rate per 1,000 persons per year (PRPY1000).ResultsOur main findings were-403 prescriptions per 1,000 persons per year in the year 2015 -2016 for all dental ailments. Across all ATC level 1 classification, 'Diseases of hard tissues' made up the majority of the prescriptions. 'Beta-lactam', 'Penicillin,' and 'Cephalosporins' were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for dental diagnoses followed by 'Macrolides' and 'Quinolones'. 'Dental caries', 'Discoloration of tooth', and 'Toothache' were the most common reasons for 'Beta-Lactams' and 'Penicillin' prescriptions.ConclusionTo conclude our study reports first ever country (India) level estimates of antibiotic prescription by antibiotic classes, age groups, and ICD-11 classification for dental ailments

    Efficacy of maternal B-12 supplementation in vegetarian women for improving infant neurodevelopment: protocol for the MATCOBIND multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial

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    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent across many low- and middle-income countries, especially where the diet is low in animal sources. While many observational studies show associations between B12 deficiency in pregnancy and infant cognitive function (including memory, language and motor skills), evidence from clinical trials is sparse and inconclusive. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This double-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial will enrol 720 vegetarian pregnant women in their first trimester from antenatal clinics at two hospitals (one in India and one in Nepal). Eligible mothers who give written consent will be randomised to receive either 250 mcg methylcobalamin or 50 mcg (quasi control), from enrolment to 6 months post-partum, given as an oral daily capsule. All mothers and their infants will continue to receive standard clinical care. The primary trial outcome is the offspring's neurodevelopment status at 9 months of age, assessed using the Development Assessment Scale of Indian Infants. Secondary outcomes include the infant's biochemical B12 status at age 9 months and maternal biochemical B12 status in the first and third trimesters. Maternal biochemical B12 status will also be assessed in the first trimester. Modification of association by a priori identified factors will also be explored. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by ethical committees at each study site (India and Nepal) and at University College London, UK. The study results will be disseminated to healthcare professionals and academics globally via conferences, presentations and publications. Researchers at each study site will share results with participants during their follow-up visits.Trial registration numberCTRI/2018/07/015048 (Clinical Trial Registry of India); NCT04083560 (ClinicalTrials.gov)
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