46 research outputs found

    Antibiotic prescriptions for oral diseases in India: evidence from national prescription data

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    Introduction: The key objective of this research was to describe the prescription rate of various antibiotics for dental problems in India and to study the relevance of the prescriptions by analysing antibiotic types associated with different dental diagnoses, using a large-scale nationally representative dataset. Methods: We used a 12-month period (May 2015 to April 2016) medical audit dataset from IQVIA (formerly IMS Health). We coded the dental diagnosis provided in the medical audit data to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) and the prescribed antibiotics for the diagnosis to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) -2020 classification of the World Health Organization. The primary outcome measure was the medicine prescription rate per 1,000 persons per year (PRPY1000). Results: Our main findings were—403 prescriptions per 1,000 persons per year in the year 2015 -2016 for all dental ailments. Across all ATC level 1 classification, ‘Diseases of hard tissues’ made up the majority of the prescriptions. ‘Beta-lactam’, ‘Penicillin,’ and ‘Cephalosporins’ were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for dental diagnoses followed by ‘Macrolides’ and ‘Quinolones’. ‘Dental caries’, ‘Discoloration of tooth’, and ‘Toothache’ were the most common reasons for ‘Beta-Lactams’ and ‘Penicillin’ prescriptions. Conclusion: To conclude our study reports first ever country (India) level estimates of antibiotic prescription by antibiotic classes, age groups, and ICD-11 classification for dental ailments

    Adenylyl cyclase 6 plays a minor role in the mouse inner ear and retina

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    Abstract Adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6) synthesizes second messenger cAMP in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. In cochlear hair cells, AC6 distribution relies on an adhesion GPCR, ADGRV1, which is associated with Usher syndrome (USH), a condition of combined hearing and vision loss. ADGRV1 is a component of the USH type 2 (USH2) protein complex in hair cells and photoreceptors. However, the role of AC6 in the inner ear and retina has not been explored. Here, we found that AC6 distribution in hair cells depends on the USH2 protein complex integrity. Several known AC6 regulators and effectors, which were previously reported to participate in ADGRV1 signaling in vitro, are localized to the stereociliary compartments that overlap with AC6 distribution in hair cells. In young AC6 knockout (Adcy6 −/− ) mice, the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but not Akt kinase, is altered in cochleas, while both kinases are normal in vestibular organs. Adult Adcy6 −/− mice however exhibit normal hearing function. AC6 is expressed in mouse retinas but rarely in photoreceptors. Adcy6 −/− mice have slightly enhanced photopic but normal scotopic vision. Therefore, AC6 may participate in the ADGRV1 signaling in hair cells but AC6 is not essential for cochlear and retinal development and maintenance

    Antibiotic prescriptions for oral diseases in India: evidence from national prescription data

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    IntroductionThe key objective of this research was to describe the prescription rate of various antibiotics for dental problems in India and to study the relevance of the prescriptions by analysing antibiotic types associated with different dental diagnoses, using a large-scale nationally representative dataset.MethodsWe used a 12-month period (May 2015 to April 2016) medical audit dataset from IQVIA (formerly IMS Health). We coded the dental diagnosis provided in the medical audit data to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) and the prescribed antibiotics for the diagnosis to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) -2020 classification of the World Health Organization. The primary outcome measure was the medicine prescription rate per 1,000 persons per year (PRPY1000).ResultsOur main findings were-403 prescriptions per 1,000 persons per year in the year 2015 -2016 for all dental ailments. Across all ATC level 1 classification, 'Diseases of hard tissues' made up the majority of the prescriptions. 'Beta-lactam', 'Penicillin,' and 'Cephalosporins' were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for dental diagnoses followed by 'Macrolides' and 'Quinolones'. 'Dental caries', 'Discoloration of tooth', and 'Toothache' were the most common reasons for 'Beta-Lactams' and 'Penicillin' prescriptions.ConclusionTo conclude our study reports first ever country (India) level estimates of antibiotic prescription by antibiotic classes, age groups, and ICD-11 classification for dental ailments

    Validation and minimally important difference of the Child-OIDP in a socioeconomically diverse sample of Indian adolescents.

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    IntroductionWhile different measures have been validated and used to assess the oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children and adolescents, no previous study has tested the psychometric performance of OHRQoL amongst the most marginalized adolescents, living in extremely deprived neighbourhoods like urban slums and resettlement areas in modern cities. Our study assessed the internal consistency reliability, construct validity and Minimally Important Difference (MID) of the Child-OIDP in a sample of adolescents aged 12-15 years reporting oral health problems that lived in three different types (including two extremely vulnerable) of neighbourhoods (urban slums, resettlement colonies, and middle and upper middle-class neighbourhoods) in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.MethodsWe conducted data analysis on a cross-sectional study, comprising of 840 adolescents. The Child-OIDP was used as a measure of OHRQoL. Internal consistency reliability was tested using the standardized Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient. The Child-OIDP was also tested for content and construct validity (the latter through the median test), while a distribution-based approach was used to identify the MID.ResultsThe Indian Child-OIDP showed good internal consistency, as the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.77. Inter-item correlation coefficients among the items ranged from 0.13 to 0.50, with the mean inter-item correlation being 0.30. The corrected item-total correlations ranged from 0.30 (social contact) to 0.54 (speaking). For construct validity, the Child-OIDP extent was significantly associated with three subjective oral and general health variables in the expected direction. The calculated effect sizes for these differences indicated that they were moderate (0.50-0.79). We also calculated the standard error of measurement (SEM) of Child-OIDP extent as 0.75.ConclusionThis study demonstrated that the Indian Child-OIDP is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of the oral health related quality of life among Indian adolescents especially from marginalised and socioeconomically vulnerable groups. This is an essential step towards assessing oral health and evaluating oral health promotion interventions in those populations and settings

    Subnational mapping of under-5 and neonatal mortality trends in India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2000-17

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    Background India has made substantial progress in improving child survival over the past few decades, but a comprehensive understanding of child mortality trends at disaggregated geographical levels is not available. We present a detailed analysis of subnational trends of child mortality to inform efforts aimed at meeting the India National Health Policy (NHP) and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for child mortality. Methods We assessed the under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) from 2000 to 2017 in 5 × 5 km grids across India, and for the districts and states of India, using all accessible data from various sources including surveys with subnational geographical information. The 31 states and groups of union territories were categorised into three groups using their Socio-demographic Index (SDI) level, calculated as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study on the basis of per-capita income, mean education, and total fertility rate in women younger than 25 years. Inequality between districts within the states was assessed using the coefficient of variation. We projected U5MR and NMR for the states and districts up to 2025 and 2030 on the basis of the trends from 2000 to 2017 and compared these projections with the NHP 2025 and SDG 2030 targets for U5MR (23 deaths and 25 deaths per 1000 livebirths, respectively) and NMR (16 deaths and 12 deaths per 1000 livebirths, respectively). We assessed the causes of child death and the contribution of risk factors to child deaths at the state level. Findings U5MR in India decreased from 83·1 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 76·7–90·1) in 2000 to 42·4 (36·5–50·0) per 1000 livebirths in 2017, and NMR from 38·0 (34·2–41·6) to 23·5 (20·1–27·8) per 1000 livebirths. U5MR varied 5·7 times between the states of India and 10·5 times between the 723 districts of India in 2017, whereas NMR varied 4·5 times and 8·0 times, respectively. In the low SDI states, 275 (88%) districts had a U5MR of 40 or more per 1000 livebirths and 291 (93%) districts had an NMR of 20 or more per 1000 livebirths in 2017. The annual rate of change from 2010 to 2017 varied among the districts from a 9·02% (95% UI 6·30–11·63) reduction to no significant change for U5MR and from an 8·05% (95% UI 5·34–10·74) reduction to no significant change for NMR. Inequality between districts within the states increased from 2000 to 2017 in 23 of the 31 states for U5MR and in 24 states for NMR, with the largest increases in Odisha and Assam among the low SDI states. If the trends observed up to 2017 were to continue, India would meet the SDG 2030 U5MR target but not the SDG 2030 NMR target or either of the NHP 2025 targets. To reach the SDG 2030 targets individually, 246 (34%) districts for U5MR and 430 (59%) districts for NMR would need a higher rate of improvement than they had up to 2017. For all major causes of under-5 death in India, the death rate decreased between 2000 and 2017, with the highest decline for infectious diseases, intermediate decline for neonatal disorders, and the smallest decline for congenital birth defects, although the magnitude of decline varied widely between the states. Child and maternal malnutrition was the predominant risk factor, to which 68·2% (65·8–70·7) of under-5 deaths and 83·0% (80·6–85·0) of neonatal deaths in India could be attributed in 2017; 10·8% (9·1–12·4) of under-5 deaths could be attributed to unsafe water and sanitation and 8·8% (7·0–10·3) to air pollution. Interpretation India has made gains in child survival, but there are substantial variations between the states in the magnitude and rate of decline in mortality, and even higher variations between the districts of India. Inequality between districts within states has increased for the majority of the states. The district-level trends presented here can provide crucial guidance for targeted efforts needed in India to reduce child mortality to meet the Indian and global child survival targets. District-level mortality trends along with state-level trends in causes of under-5 and neonatal death and the risk factors in this Article provide a comprehensive reference for further planning of child mortality reduction in India

    Socioeconomic inequalities in clustering of health-compromising behaviours among Indian adolescents

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    Abstract Background: The simultaneous occurrence of health-compromising behaviors can accentuate the risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to examine the existence and patterns of clustering of four NCD risk behaviors among adolescents and its association with social position. In addition, socioeconomic inequalities in the occurrence of clustering of NCD risk behaviors were also assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1218 adolescents (14–19 years old) in the city of New Delhi, India. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess health-compromising behaviors (tobacco and alcohol use, fruit/vegetable intake, and physical inactivity). Clustering was assessed using pairwise correlations, counts of clustering of health-compromising behaviors, comparison of observed/expected ratios, and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to test the associations of clustering with social position (education and wealth). The relative and slope indices of inequalities in the presence of clustering of behaviors according to education and wealth were estimated. Results: Three major clusters of health behaviors emerged: (a) physical inactivity + lower fruit and vegetable intake, (b) tobacco + alcohol use, and (c) lower fruit and vegetable intake + tobacco + alcohol use. Pronounced clustering of health-compromising behaviors was observed with lower educational attainment and wealth. Conclusions: The presence of clustering of health-compromising behaviors was considerably higher among adolescents with lower educational attainment and wealth. The area of residence has an important influence on socioeconomic inequalities in clustering of NCD risk factors

    Central Corneal Thickness -A Must In Management of Glaucoma

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    Abstract: Purpose: To determine the correlation of central corneal thickness (CCT

    Abstracts of International Conference on Innovations in Business Management

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    This book contains abstracts of the various research ideas of the academic community and practitioners of management presented at the International Conference on Innovations in Business Management (ICIBM 2020). The researchers have contributed toward various themes of the conference such as sustainable economy, supply chain, women-empowerment, export-import, microfinance, government policies, etc. We strongly believe that it will open up further scope for in-depth research in various disciplines of business management. Best wishes to the participants to have detailed discussions on the above-said wide range of areas. Conference Title: International Conference on Innovations in Business ManagementConference Acronym: ICIBM 2020Conference Date: 16-17 January 2020Conference Location: ICFAI University, Dehradun, IndiaConference Organizers: ICFAI Business School, ICFAI University, Dehradun, India & University of Derby, United Kingdo
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