117 research outputs found

    Pericarp Characteristics of the F(1) Hybrid Medium-Fruited Tomato between the Male Sterile Mutant (T-4) of the Large-Fruited 'First' and a Small-Fruited Pure Line with Soft Pericarp

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    Breeding for a soft pericarp in medium-sized tomato fruit was conducted by crossing the male sterile mutant (T-4) of the large-fruited 'First' and a small-fruited pure line with a soft pericarp (S). Pericarp characteristics of the F(1) hybrid (named MS-II) were compared with the parents and two similar medium-fruited tomato cultivars, 'Red ore' and 'Frutica'. Pericarp firmness in MS-II was lower as compared with that of both T-4 and S. Differences in pericarp firmness among MS-II, 'Red ore' and 'Frutica' were dependent on truss. In the first truss, MS-II developed fruits with a softer pericarp than 'Red ore', but with a firmer pericarp than 'Frutica'. In the second and third trusses, pericarp firmness of the fruit in MS-II tended to be lower than those of the other two cultivars. The thickness of the exocarp cuticle in MS-II was lower than that in 'Red ore', but was no different to that in 'Frutica'. Thus genotypic differences in pericarp firmness among MS-II, 'Red ore' and 'Frutica' seem to be derived from differences in the degree of cutin development in the epidermal perimeter. A thinner cuticle can explain pericarp softness in the fruits above the second truss in MS-II.薄皮果柔の中玉トマト品種育成を目的とし,‘ファースト’花粉非崩壊型雄性不稔系統 (T-4) を種子親,果皮の軟らかい小果固定系統 (S) を花粉親とするF(1)雑種 (MS-II) の特性について,両親系統および既存の中玉F(1)品種‘レッドオーレ’,‘フルティカ’のそれと比較した.両親系統と比較したところ,MS-IIの果実硬度は花粉親である軟果皮Sと同等となり,果皮硬度はSよりも低い値となった.3段摘心栽培において,MS-IIの果実硬度は第1段では2品種と差は無かったが,上位果房ほど両品種よりも低くなる傾向を示した.果皮硬度は,第1果房では‘レッドオーレ’よりも低く,‘フルティカ’よりも高かったが,上位果房ほど両品種よりも低い値となる傾向を示した.MS-IIの外果皮におけるクチクラ厚を測定したところ,‘フルティカ’と同等となり,‘レッドオーレ’よりも低かった.また,MS-IIのクチクラ層の発達程度が2品種よりも低いことが観察され,MS-IIの果皮硬度が2品種よりも低い傾向を示すのは,外果皮におけるクチクラ層の発達程度が低いためと推測された

    Temporal and Spatial Analyses of Spectral Indices of Nonthermal Emissions Derived from Hard X-Rays and Microwaves

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    We studied electron spectral indices of nonthermal emissions seen in hard X-rays (HXRs) and in microwaves. We analyzed 12 flares observed by the Hard X-ray Telescope aboard {\it Yohkoh}, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters (NoRP), and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and compared the spectral indices derived from total fluxes of hard X-rays and microwaves. Except for four events, which have very soft HXR spectra suffering from the thermal component, these flares show a gap Δδ\Delta\delta between the electron spectral indices derived from hard X-rays δX\delta_{X} and those from microwaves δμ\delta_{\mu} (Δδ=δX−δμ\Delta\delta = \delta_{X} - \delta_{\mu}) of about 1.6. Furthermore, from the start to the peak times of the HXR bursts, the time profiles of the HXR spectral index δX\delta_{X} evolve synchronously with those of the microwave spectral index δμ\delta_{\mu}, keeping the constant gap. We also examined the spatially resolved distribution of the microwave spectral index by using NoRH data. The microwave spectral index δμ\delta_{\mu} tends to be larger, which means a softer spectrum, at HXR footpoint sources with stronger magnetic field than that at the loop tops. These results suggest that the electron spectra are bent at around several hundreds of keV, and become harder at the higher energy range that contributes the microwave gyrosynchrotron emission.Comment: 24 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    G‐CSF‐dependent neutrophil differentiation requires downregulation of MAPK activities through the Gab2 signaling pathway

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    Granulocyte colony‐stimulating factor (G‐CSF) stimulation of myeloid cells induced tyrosine‐phosphorylation of cellular proteins. One of the tyrosine‐phosphorylated proteins was found to be a scaffold protein, Grb2‐associated binding protein 2 (Gab2). Another member of Gab family protein, Gab3, was exogenously overexpressed in neutrophil progenitor cells to make the Gab3 protein to compete with the endogenous Gab2 for the G‐CSF‐dependent signaling. In Gab3‐overexpressed cells, the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous Gab2 by G‐CSF stimulation was markedly downregulated, while the phosphorylation of Gab3 was significantly enhanced. The Gab3‐overexpressed cells continuously proliferated in the medium containing G‐CSF and lost the ability to differentiate to the mature neutrophil, characterized by the lobulated nucleus. The G‐CSF stimulation‐dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab3, the association of SHP2 to Gab3 and the following mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation were prolonged in the Gab3‐overexpressed cells, compared to the parental cells, where the binding of SHP2 to Gab2 protein and thereby the activation of MAPK were not sustained after G‐CSF stimulation. Inhibition of MAPK by pharmaceutical inhibitor restored the Gab3‐overexpressed cells to the ability to differentiate to mature neutrophil. Therefore, G‐CSF‐dependent Gab2 phosphorylation and following its downregulation led the short‐term MAPK activation. The downregulation of MAPK after transient Gab2 phosphorylation was necessary for the consequent neutrophil differentiation induced by G‐CSF stimulation

    The Golgin Tether Giantin Regulates the Secretory Pathway by Controlling Stack Organization within Golgi Apparatus

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    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that play a key role in the regulation of Golgi architecture and function. Giantin, the largest golgin in mammals, forms a complex with p115, rab1, GM130, and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), thereby facilitating vesicle tethering and fusion processes around the Golgi apparatus. Treatment with the microtubule destabilizing drug nocodazole transforms the Golgi ribbon into individual Golgi stacks. Here we show that siRNA-mediated depletion of giantin resulted in more dispersed Golgi stacks after nocodazole treatment than by control treatment, without changing the average cisternal length. Furthermore, depletion of giantin caused an increase in cargo transport that was associated with altered cell surface protein glycosylation. Drosophila S2 cells are known to have dispersed Golgi stacks and no giantin homolog. The exogenous expression of mammalian giantin cDNA in S2 cells resulted in clustered Golgi stacks, similar to the Golgi ribbon in mammalian cells. These results suggest that the spatial organization of the Golgi ribbon is mediated by giantin, which also plays a role in cargo transport and sugar modifications

    Spirulina Effectiveness Study on Child Malnutrition in Zambia

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    Ensuring adequate nutrition among vulnerable children has been a serious challenge in Zambia. Chronic child malnutrition is more predominant at 45 per cent while underweight and wasting are at 15 and 5 per cent respectively. This study tested the effectiveness of spirulina on malnourished children in Zambia. The study took place from June 2012 to February 2013. Sixty children were divided into spirulina treatment and control groups. The outcome of taking spirulina was analysed by collecting anthropometric data. The fixed-effect regression result showed that 10g of spirulina dairy intake leads to improvement by producing 0.29 higher points in the height-for-age z-score (HAZ); confidence interval (CI)[0.0404, 0.535]. On the contrary, the weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) and the mid-upper arm circumference z-score (MUACZ) did not show a significant difference, although treated children showed a larger improvement by 0.09 points and 0.38 points, respectively. This study implied the validity of spirulina in reducing chronic malnutrition

    Srv2/CAP is required for polarized actin cable assembly and patch internalization during clathrin-mediated endocytosis

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    The dynamic assembly and disassembly of actin filaments is essential for the formation and transport of vesicles during endocytosis. In yeast, two types of actin structures, namely cortical patches and cytoplasmic cables, play a direct role in endocytosis, but how their interaction is regulated remains unclear. Here, we show that Srv2/CAP, an evolutionarily conserved actin regulator, is required for efficient endocytosis owing to its role in the formation of the actin patches that aid initial vesicle invagination and of the actin cables that these move along. Deletion of the SRV2 gene resulted in the appearance of aberrant fragmented actin cables that frequently moved past actin patches, the sites of endocytosis. We find that the C-terminal CARP domain of Srv2p is vitally important for the proper assembly of actin patches and cables; we also demonstrate that the N-terminal helical folded domain of Srv2 is required for its localization to actin patches, specifically to the ADP-actin rich region through an interaction with cofilin. These results demonstrate the in vivo roles of Srv2p in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton during clathrin-mediated endocytosi

    フクショク ゾウケイ ニオケル ギジュツテキ ケンキュウ ダイ1ホウ フォーマルドレス ノ セイサク

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    本研究の材料は通常の一反を使用した羽織である。これを残らず使用してフォーマル・ドレスを製作した訳であるが,反物その物の広さが幅いっぱいに使っても洋服地の半分に過ぎない。その上今回の材料は絞り特有の布幅で通常の並幅より狭い。また一度裁ってあるため反物の長さと幅が名称別に区分され,それぞれ寸法が異なる。そこで材料に合わせてデザインを考え,製図展開をするわずらわしさがあった。また和服は年齢や身長に応じ,あるいは好みや用途などに左右され,着丈や袖丈が短く裁断されていることが多い。使用の羽織も着丈,袖丈共に短い。これらの諸種の理由から,和服を洋服に再生して,身体のフォルムとしての美しさとデザイン,および素材の調和が如何に表現されるかが製作上の難所であった。しかし製作結果から,こうした諸種のことへの対応ができたと思う。和服をリフォームする時の基礎知識として,和服の構成を会得していれば,洋服にリフォームする構想やデザインの案出も比較的容易である。高級感のある和服地を使用して,和服のイメージを捨てた,新鮮味のある洋服に変えられることを理解した。そして素材の有効活用と共に,造形上の技法を研明した。経済性を軸に,機能性,合理性の追求を意図した研究が,今後の着用実験によって実証できると思われる。本研究の製作物は平成8年5月,日本服飾学会において展示発表したものである

    Immune State Conversion of the Mesenteric Lymph Node in a Mouse Breast Cancer Model

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    Secondary lymphoid tissues, such as the spleen and lymph nodes (LNs), contribute to breast cancer development and metastasis in both anti- and pro-tumoral directions. Although secondary lymphoid tissues have been extensively studied, very little is known about the immune conversion in mesenteric LNs (mLNs) during breast cancer development. Here, we demonstrate inflammatory immune conversion of mLNs in a metastatic 4T1 breast cancer model. Splenic T cells were significantly decreased and continuously suppressed IFN-gamma production during tumor development, while myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were dramatically enriched. However, T cell numbers in the mLN did not decrease, and the MDSCs only moderately increased. T cells in the mLN exhibited conversion from a pro-inflammatory state with high IFN-gamma expression to an anti-inflammatory state with high expression of IL-4 and IL-10 in early- to late-stages of breast cancer development. Interestingly, increased migration of CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs) into the mLN, along with increased (1 -> 3)-beta-D-glucan levels in serum, was observed even in late-stage breast cancer. This suggests that CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs could prime cancer-reactive T cells. Together, the data indicate that the mLN is an important lymphoid tissue contributing to breast cancer development

    Giantin Affects Golgi Stack Connection

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    Golgins are a family of Golgi-localized long coiled-coil proteins. The major golgin function is thought to be the tethering of vesicles, membranes, and cytoskeletal elements to the Golgi. We previously showed that knockdown of one of the longest golgins, Giantin, altered the glycosylation patterns of cell surfaces and the kinetics of cargo transport, suggesting that Giantin maintains correct glycosylation through slowing down transport within the Golgi. Giantin knockdown also altered the sizes and numbers of mini Golgi stacks generated by microtubule de-polymerization, suggesting that it maintains the independence of individual Golgi stacks. Therefore, it is presumed that Golgi stacks lose their independence following Giantin knockdown, allowing easier and possibly increased transport among stacks and abnormal glycosylation. To gain structural insights into the independence of Golgi stacks, we herein performed electron tomography and 3D modeling of Golgi stacks in Giantin knockdown cells. Compared with control cells, Giantin-knockdown cells had fewer and smaller fenestrae within each cisterna. This was supported by data showing that the diffusion rate of Golgi membrane proteins is faster in Giantin-knockdown Golgi, indicating that Giantin knockdown structurally and functionally increases connectivity among Golgi cisternae and stacks. This increased connectivity suggests that contrary to the cis-golgin tether model, Giantin instead inhibits the tether and fusion of nearby Golgi cisternae and stacks, resulting in transport difficulties between stacks that may enable the correct glycosylation of proteins and lipids passing through the Golgi

    A cancer stem cell model as the point of origin of cancer-associated fibroblasts in tumor microenvironment

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    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are one of the most prominent cell types in the stromal compartment of the tumor microenvironment. CAFs support multiple aspects of cancer progression, including tumor initiation, invasion, and metastasis. The heterogeneous nature of the stromal microenvironment is attributed to the multiple sources from which the cells in this compartment originate. The present study provides the first evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the key sources of CAFs in the tumor niche. We generated CSC-like cells by treating mouse induced pluripotent stem cells with conditioned medium from breast cancer cell lines. The resulting cell population expressed both CSC and pluripotency markers, and the sphere-forming CSC-like cells formed subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Intriguingly, these CSC-like cells always formed heterogeneous populations surrounded by myofibroblast-like cells. Based on this observation, we hypothesized that CSCs could be the source of the CAFs that support tumor maintenance and survival. To address this hypothesis, we induced the differentiation of spheres and purified the myofibroblast-like cells. The resulting cells exhibited a CAF-like phenotype, suggesting that they had differentiated into the subpopulations of cells that support CSC self-renewal. These findings provide novel insights into the dynamic interplay between various microenvironmental factors and CAFs in the CSC niche
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