43 research outputs found

    Cloning of an isoform of mouse TGF-β type II receptor gene

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    AbstractA variant of transforming growth factor-β type II receptor (TGF-βRII) cDNA was isolated from a mouse brain cDNA library. The predicted receptor is identical to previously reported mouse TGF-βRII except that the isoform has an insertion sequence of 25 amino acids in the predicted ligand-binding domain. By the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), transcripts for both isoforms were detected in all tissues and developing embryos examined. The isoform transiently expressed in COS cells showed a similar ligand-binding specificity to authentic TGF-βRII. These results suggest that the mouse TGF-βRII gene generates multiple isoforms, possibly by alternative splicing, as reported for activin type IIB receptor; and an isoform which has the extra sequence in the ligand-binding domain is also involved in the TGF-β signal transduction

    Wnt11 controls cell contact persistence by local accumulation of Frizzled 7 at the plasma membrane

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    Wnt11 is a key signal, determining cell polarization and migration during vertebrate gastrulation. It is known that Wnt11 functionally interacts with several signaling components, the homologues of which control planar cell polarity in Drosophila melanogaster. Although in D. melanogaster these components are thought to polarize cells by asymmetrically localizing at the plasma membrane, it is not yet clear whether their subcellular localization plays a similarly important role in vertebrates. We show that in zebrafish embryonic cells, Wnt11 locally functions at the plasma membrane by accumulating its receptor, Frizzled 7, on adjacent sites of cell contacts. Wnt11-induced Frizzled 7 accumulations recruit the intracellular Wnt signaling mediator Dishevelled, as well as Wnt11 itself, and locally increase cell contact persistence. This increase in cell contact persistence is mediated by the local interaction of Wnt11, Frizzled 7, and the atypical cadherin Flamingo at the plasma membrane, and it does not require the activity of further downstream effectors of Wnt11 signaling, such as RhoA and Rok2. We propose that Wnt11, by interacting with Frizzled 7 and Flamingo, modulates local cell contact persistence to coordinate cell movements during gastrulation

    Non-canonical Wnt signalling and regulation of gastrulation movements

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    Members of the Wnt family have been implicated in a variet

    Msd1/ SSX

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    Interaction with surrounding normal epithelial cells influences signalling pathways and behaviour of Src-transformed cells

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    At the initial stage of carcinogenesis, transformation occurs in a single cell within an epithelial sheet. However, it remains unknown what happens at the boundary between normal and transformed cells. Using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transformed with temperature-sensitive v-Src, we have examined the interface between normal and Src-transformed epithelial cells. We show that Src-transformed cells are apically extruded when surrounded by normal cells, but not when Src cells alone are cultured, suggesting that apical extrusion occurs in a cell-context-dependent manner. We also observe apical extrusion of Src-transformed cells in the enveloping layer of zebrafish gastrula embryos. When Src-transformed MDCK cells are surrounded by normal MDCK cells, myosin-II and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are activated in Src cells, which further activate downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Importantly, activation of these signalling pathways depends on the presence of surrounding normal cells and plays a crucial role in apical extrusion of Src cells. Collectively, these results indicate that interaction with surrounding normal epithelial cells influences the signalling pathways and behaviour of Src-transformed cells

    Nodal dependent differential localisation of dishevelled-2 demarcates regions of differing cell behaviour in the visceral endoderm

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    The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE), a signalling centre within the simple epithelium of the visceral endoderm (VE), is required for anterior-posterior axis specification in the mouse embryo. AVE cells migrate directionally within the VE, thereby properly positioning the future anterior of the embryo and orientating the primary body axis. AVE cells consistently come to an abrupt stop at the border between the anterior epiblast and extra-embryonic ectoderm, which represents an end-point to their proximal migration. Little is known about the underlying basis for this barrier and how surrounding cells in the VE respond to or influence AVE migration. We use high-resolution 3D reconstructions of protein localisation patterns and time-lapse microscopy to show that AVE cells move by exchanging neighbours within an intact epithelium. Cell movement and mixing is restricted to the VE overlying the epiblast, characterised by the enrichment of Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) to the lateral plasma membrane, a hallmark of Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signalling. AVE cells halt upon reaching the adjoining region of VE overlying the extra-embryonic ectoderm, which displays reduced neighbour exchange and in which Dvl2 is excluded specifically from the plasma membrane. Though a single continuous sheet, these two regions of VE show distinct patterns of F-actin localisation, in cortical rings and an apical shroud, respectively. We genetically perturb PCP signalling and show that this disrupts the localisation pattern of Dvl2 and F-actin and the normal migration of AVE cells. In Nodal null embryos, membrane localisation of Dvl2 is reduced, while in mutants for the Nodal inhibitor Lefty1, Dvl2 is ectopically membrane localised, establishing a role for Nodal in modulating PCP signalling. These results show that the limits of AVE migration are determined by regional differences in cell behaviour and protein localisation within an otherwise apparently uniform VE. In addition to coordinating global cell movements across epithelia (such as during convergence extension), PCP signalling in interplay with TGFβ signalling can demarcate regions of differing behaviour within epithelia, thereby modulating the movement of cells within them

    Friction forces position the neural anlage

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    During embryonic development, mechanical forces are essential for cellular rearrangements driving tissue morphogenesis. Here, we show that in the early zebrafish embryo, friction forces are generated at the interface between anterior axial mesoderm (prechordal plate, ppl) progenitors migrating towards the animal pole and neurectoderm progenitors moving in the opposite direction towards the vegetal pole of the embryo. These friction forces lead to global rearrangement of cells within the neurectoderm and determine the position of the neural anlage. Using a combination of experiments and simulations, we show that this process depends on hydrodynamic coupling between neurectoderm and ppl as a result of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion between those tissues. Our data thus establish the emergence of friction forces at the interface between moving tissues as a critical force-generating process shaping the embryo

    Zebrafish gastrulation movements: bridging cell and developmental biology

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    During vertebrate gastrulation, large cellular rearrangements lead to the formation of the three germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Zebrafish offer many genetic and experimental advantages for studying vertebrate gastrulation movements. For instance, several mutants, including silberblick, knypek and trilobite, exhibit defects in morphogenesis during gastrulation. The identification of the genes mutated in these lines together with the analysis of the mutant phenotypes has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie vertebrate gastrulation movements

    Wnt signalling: a moving picture emerges from van gogh

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    Recent studies on vertebrate homologues of the van gogh/strabismus (vang/stbm) gene, a key player in planar cell polarity signalling in Drosophila, show that vang/stbm is involved in patterning and morphogenesis during vertebrate gastrulation where it modulates two distinct Wnt signals

    Convergent extension Using collective cell migration and cell intercalation to shape embryos

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    Body axis elongation represents a common and fundamental morphogenetic process in development. A key mechanism triggering body axis elongation without additional growth is convergent extension (CE), whereby a tissue undergoes simultaneous narrowing and extension. Both collective cell migration and cell intercalation are thought to drive CE and are used to different degrees in various species as they elongate their body axis. Here, we provide an overview of CE as a general strategy for body axis elongation and discuss conserved and divergent mechanisms underlying CE among different species