2,460 research outputs found

    Image_1_Relationship between mathematical pedagogical content knowledge, beliefs, and motivation of elementary school teachers.pdf

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    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is one form of teachers’ professional knowledge in subject teaching, and teachers’ rich PCK enables effective instruction and improves students’ academic performance. However, there has been limited research on the relationships of individual difference characteristics of teachers to PCK among in-service elementary school teachers. Therefore, in addition to the demographic variables (gender and years of teaching experience) and psychological variables (beliefs about teaching and learning and teacher efficacy) examined in previous studies, this study attempted to clarify whether motivation for teaching is related to PCK. We conducted a web survey of in-service elementary school teachers in Japan (n = 267). The results showed that the traditional beliefs that students are to be controlled by their teachers and indifference, which describes a state of lack of motivation to prepare for class, were negatively associated with two elements of mathematical PCK (knowledge of learners and knowledge of instruction). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that traditional beliefs about teaching and learning were negatively associated with the knowledge of learners and indifference to subject instruction with knowledge of instruction. This suggests that teachers’ motivation for teaching is related to PCK, in addition to the variables that have been previously examined.</p

    Data_Sheet_1_Elevation of inositol pyrophosphate IP7 in the mammalian spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.pdf

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    BackgroundAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder associated with progressive impairment of spinal motor neurons. Continuous research endeavor is underway to fully understand the molecular mechanisms associating with this disorder. Although several studies have implied the involvement of inositol pyrophosphate IP7 in ALS, there is no direct experimental evidence proving this notion. In this study, we analyzed inositol pyrophosphate IP7 and its precursor IP6 in the mouse and human ALS biological samples to directly assess whether IP7 level and/or its metabolism are altered in ALS disease state.MethodsWe used a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) protocol originally-designed for mammalian IP6 and IP7 analysis. We measured the abundance of these molecules in the central nervous system (CNS) of ALS mouse model SOD1(G93A) transgenic (TG) mice as well as postmortem spinal cord of ALS patients. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from ALS patients were also analyzed to assess if IP7 status in these biofluids is associated with ALS disease state.ResultsSOD1(G93A) TG mice showed significant increase of IP7 level in the spinal cord compared with control mice at the late stage of disease progression, while its level in cerebrum and cerebellum remains constant. We also observed significantly elevated IP7 level and its product-to-precursor ratio (IP7/IP6) in the postmortem spinal cord of ALS patients, suggesting enhanced enzymatic activity of IP7-synthesizing kinases in the human ALS spinal cord. In contrast, human CSF did not contain detectable level of IP6 and IP7, and neither the IP7 level nor the IP7/IP6 ratio in human PBMCs differentiated ALS patients from age-matched healthy individuals.ConclusionBy directly analyzing IP7 in the CNS of ALS mice and humans, the findings of this study provide direct evidence that IP7 level and/or the enzymatic activity of IP7-generating kinases IP6Ks are elevated in ALS spinal cord. On the other hand, this study also showed that IP7 is not suitable for biofluid-based ALS diagnosis. Further investigation is required to elucidate a role of IP7 in ALS pathology and utilize IP7 metabolism on the diagnostic application of ALS.</p

    Effectiveness of primary series, first, and second booster vaccination of monovalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccines against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and severe diseases during the SARS-CoV-2 omicron BA.5 epidemic in Japan: vaccine effectiveness real-time surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 (VERSUS)

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    This study aimed to evaluate VE of primary, first, and second booster ancestral-strain monovalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccination against symptomatic infections and severe diseases in Japan. We conducted a test-negative case-control study. We included medically attended episodes and hospitalizations involving individuals aged ≥16 with signs and symptoms from July to November 2022, when Omicron BA.5 was dominant nationwide. To evaluate VE, we calculated adjusted ORs of vaccination among test-positive versus test-negative individuals using a mixed-effects logistic regression. For VE against symptomatic infections among individuals aged 16 to 59, VE of primary vaccination at > 180 days was 26.1% (95% CI: 10.6–38.8%); VE of the first booster was 58.5% (48.4–66.7%) at ≤90 days, decreasing to 41.1% (29.5–50.8%) at 91 to 180 days. For individuals aged ≥60, VE of the first booster was 42.8% (1.7–66.7%) at ≤90 days, dropping to 15.4% (−25.9–43.2%) at 91 to 180 days, and then increasing to 44.0% (16.4–62.5%) after the second booster. For VE against severe diseases, VE of the first and second booster was 77.3% (61.2–86.7%) at ≤90 days and 55.9% (23.4–74.6%) afterward. mRNA booster vaccination provided moderate protection against symptomatic infections and high-level protection against severe diseases during the BA.5 epidemic in Japan.</p

    Additional file 1 of Chest CT findings in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring V-V ECMO: J-CARVE registry

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    Additional file 1: SMethods. Figure S1. Representative images of each of the characteristic pulmonary opacities on chest computed tomography scans. Figure S2. Distribution of registered patients by years. Figure S3. Cumulative proportion of the duration (h) between chest computed tomography examinations and initiation of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Figure S4. Characteristics of the chest computed tomography findings according to the mechanical ventilation–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support duration and the underlying etiology of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Figure S5. Survival curve of the chest computed tomography findings related to changes outside of the pulmonary opacity (excluding subcutaneous emphysema). Figure S6. Survival curve of participants with and without traction bronchiectasis separately according to the underlying etiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Table S1. Concordance rates between two evaluators. Table S2. Basic information of the participating hospitals. Table S3. Characteristics of chest computed tomography findings. Table S4. Results of multivariate Cox regression analysis of the relationship between V-V ECMO support initiation and 90-day in-hospital mortality. Table S5. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis for successful ECMO liberation

    Proton beam therapy for extrahepatic biliary tract cancer: Analysis with prospective multi-institutional patients’ registration database, Proton-Net

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    Background and purpose: To examine the role of proton beam therapy (PBT) in the treatment of extrahepatic biliary tract cancer (EBC). Methods and materials: We analyzed the data accumulated in the Proton-Net database, which prospectively registered all individual patient data treated with PBT in all Japanese proton institutions from May 2016 to June 2019. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoints were local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity. Results: Ninety-three patients with unresectable and/or recurrent EBC were treated with PBT using a median prescribed dose of 67.5 Gy (RBE) (range, 50–72.6 Gy) in 25 (22–30 fractions). With a median follow-up of 16.3 months, the median survival time was 20.1 months and the 2-year OS was 37.8%. Two-year PFS and LC rates were 20.6% and 66.5%, respectively. Poor liver function (Child-Pugh B, C), a narrower distance between the tumor and digestive tract (2 cm >), and a larger tumor diameter (2 cm <) were identified as poor prognostic factors for OS. PBT-related grade 3 ≤ acute and late adverse events occurred in 5.4% and 4.3% of patients, respectively, including one gastrointestinal late toxicity (duodenal ulcer). Conclusions: This is the largest prospectively accumulated series of PBT for EBC, and PBT showed favorable outcomes with acceptable toxicity profiles

    Nationwide Laboratory Surveillance of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Japan: Fiscal Years 2011–2020

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    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a devastating demyelinating disease caused by JC virus (JCV), predominantly affecting patients with impaired cellular immunity. PML is a non-reportable disease with a few exceptions, making national surveillance difficult. In Japan, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for JCV in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is performed at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases to support PML diagnosis. To clarify the overall profile of PML in Japan, patient data provided at the time of CSF-JCV testing over 10 years (FY2011–2020) were analyzed. PCR testing for 1537 new suspected PML cases was conducted, and 288 (18.7%) patients tested positive for CSF-JCV. An analysis of the clinical information on all individuals tested revealed characteristics of PML cases, including the geographic distribution, age and sex patterns, and CSF-JCV-positivity rates among the study subjects for each type of underlying condition. During the last five years of the study period, a surveillance system utilizing ultrasensitive PCR testing and widespread clinical attention to PML led to the detection of CSF-JCV in the earlier stages of the disease. The results of this study will provide valuable information not only for PML diagnosis, but also for the treatment of PML-predisposing conditions

    Safety of JAK and IL-6 inhibitors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a multicenter cohort study

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    BackgroundThe ORAL Surveillance trial showed a potentially higher incidence of malignancy and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) associated with tofacitinib than those associated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (TNFis). However, few studies have compared the safety of non-TNFis or other Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (JAKis). This study was aimed at comparing the incidence rates (IRs) of malignancies and MACEs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated using interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitors (IL-6is) or JAKis.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed 427 patients with RA who were treated using an IL-6i (n = 273) or a JAKi (n = 154). We determined the IRs of malignancy and MACEs, and the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of malignancies and investigated factors related to malignancy and MACEs. After adjusting the clinical characteristic imbalance by propensity score matching (PSM), we compared the IRs of adverse events between the JAKi and IL-6i groups.ResultsAfter PSM, the observational period was determined to be 605.27 patient-years (PY), and the median observational period was determined to be 2.28 years. We identified seven cases of malignancy (IR: 2.94 per 100 PY) in the JAKi-treated group and five cases (IR: 1.36 per 100 PY) in the IL-6i-treated group after PSM. The IR of MACEs was 2.56 and 0.83 (per 100 PY) in the JAKi- and IL-6i-treated groups. The IRRs of JAKi-treated patients versus IL-6i-treated patients were 2.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67–7.42) for malignancy and 3.03 (95% CI: 0.77–15.21) for MACE. There were no significant differences in IRR for malignancy and MACE between both groups after PSM. Univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses revealed that older age and JAKi use were independent risk factors for malignancy, while older age, hypertension, and JAKi use were independent risk factors for MACEs. The overall malignancy SIR was significantly higher in the JAKi-treated group compared to the general population (2.10/100 PY, 95% CI: 1.23–2.97).ConclusionThe IRs of malignancy and MACE in patients with RA after PSM were comparable between IL-6i-treated and JAKi-treated patients. However, the SIR of malignancy in JAKi treatment was significantly higher than in the general population; therefore, further safety studies comparing JAKi to non-TNFi biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are needed