27 research outputs found

    Copy number loss of KDM5D may be a predictive biomarker for ATR inhibitor treatment in male patients with pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma

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    Abstract A limited number of patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) benefit clinically from molecular targeted drugs because of a lack of targetable driver alterations. We aimed to understand the prevalence and clinical significance of lysine‐specific demethylase 5D (KDM5D) copy number loss in SCC and explore its potential as a predictive biomarker for ataxia‐telangiectasia and Rad3‐related (ATR) inhibitor treatment. We evaluated KDM5D copy number loss in 173 surgically resected SCCs from male patients using fluorescence in situ hybridization. KDM5D copy number loss was detected in 75 of the 173 patients (43%). Genome‐wide expression profiles of the transcription start sites (TSSs) were obtained from 17 SCCs, for which the cap analysis of gene expression assay was performed, revealing that upregulated genes in tumors with the KDM5D copy number loss are associated with ‘cell cycle’, whereas downregulated genes in tumors with KDM5D copy number loss were associated with ‘immune response’. Clinicopathologically, SCCs with KDM5D copy number loss were associated with late pathological stage (p = 0.0085) and high stromal content (p = 0.0254). Multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry showed that the number of tumor‐infiltrating CD8+/T‐bet+ T cells was lower in SCCs with KDM5D copy number loss than in wild‐type tumors. In conclusion, approximately 40% of the male patients with SCC exhibited KDM5D copy number loss. Tumors in patients who show this distinct phenotype can be ‘cold tumors’, which are characterized by the paucity of tumor T‐cell infiltration and usually do not respond to immunotherapy. Thus, they may be candidates for trials with ATR inhibitors

    Conversion surgery for stage IV gastric cancer: a multicenter retrospective study

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    Abstract Background Recent improvements in systemic chemotherapy have provided an opportunity for patients with stage IV gastric cancer (GC) to undergo conversion surgery (CS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients who underwent CS and to elucidate the prognostic factors for CS in stage IV GC. Methods A total of 79 patients who underwent CS with the aim of R0 resection for stage IV GC at six institutions from January 2008 to July 2019 were enrolled. We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological data and prognosis. Results Of the 79 patients, 23 (31.1%) had initially resectable disease (IR) before chemotherapy, defined as positive for cancer on peritoneal cytology (CY1), resectable hepatic metastasis, or para-aortic lymph node No. 16a2/b1 metastasis. Of the 56 remaining patients with primary unresectable disease, 39 had peritoneal dissemination. R0 resection was accomplished in 63 patients (79.7%). The 3-year OS rates for patients with IR and unresectable disease were 78.3% and 44.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that IR (P = 0.014) and R0 (P = 0.014) were statistically significant independent prognostic factors for favorable OS. Among patients with peritoneal dissemination alone, OS was significantly better for patients with R0 resection than for patients with R1/2 resection, with the 3-year OS rates of 65.5% and 23.1%, respectively (P = 0.011). Conclusions CS is a treatment option for selected patients with stage IV GC. Patients with IR and patients who achieve R0 resection may obtain a survival benefit from CS

    Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies GP2 gene risk variants for pancreatic cancer

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    Previous genome-wide association studies have identified risk loci for pancreatic cancer but were centered on individuals of European ancestry. Here the authors identify GP2 gene variants associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility in populations of East Asian ancestry

    Constant Enthalpy Change Value during Pyrophosphate Hydrolysis within the Physiological Limits of NaCl

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    A decrease in water activity was thought to result in smaller enthalpy change values during PPi hydrolysis, indicating the importance of solvation for the reaction. However, the physiological significance of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we combined biochemistry and calorimetry to solve this problem using NaCl, a physiologically occurring water activity-reducing reagent. The pyrophosphatase activities of extremely halophilic Haloarcula japonica, which can grow at ∼4 m NaCl, and non-halophilic Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were maximal at 2.0 and 0.1 m NaCl, respectively. Thus, halophilic and non-halophilic pyrophosphatases exhibit distinct maximal activities at different NaCl concentration ranges. Upon calorimetry, the same exothermic enthalpy change of −35 kJ/mol was obtained for the halophile and non-halophiles at 1.5–4.0 and 0.1–2.0 m NaCl, respectively. These results show that solvation changes caused by up to 4.0 m NaCl (water activity of ∼0.84) do not affect the enthalpy change in PPi hydrolysis. It has been postulated that PPi is an ATP analog, having a so-called high energy phosphate bond, and that the hydrolysis of both compounds is enthalpically driven. Therefore, our results indicate that the hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds, which are responsible for biological energy conversion, is enthalpically driven within the physiological limits of NaCl.This work was supported by Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 20118005 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan

    Identification of novel biomarker candidates by proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with moyamoya disease using SELDI-TOF-MS

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an uncommon cerebrovascular condition with unknown etiology characterized by slowly progressive stenosis or occlusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries associated with an abnormal vascular network. MMD is a major cause of stroke, specifically in the younger population. Diagnosis is based on only radiological features as no other clinical data are available. The purpose of this study was to identify novel biomarker candidate proteins differentially expressed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MMD using proteomic analysis.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>For detection of biomarkers, CSF samples were obtained from 20 patients with MMD and 12 control patients. Mass spectral data were generated by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) with an anion exchange chip in three different buffer conditions. After expression difference mapping was undertaken using the obtained protein profiles, a comparative analysis was performed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A statistically significant number of proteins (34) were recognized as single biomarker candidate proteins which were differentially detected in the CSF of patients with MMD, compared to the control patients (p < 0.05). All peak intensity profiles of the biomarker candidates underwent classification and regression tree (CART) analysis to produce prediction models. Two important biomarkers could successfully classify the patients with MMD and control patients.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>In this study, several novel biomarker candidate proteins differentially expressed in the CSF of patients with MMD were identified by a recently developed proteomic approach. This is a pilot study of CSF proteomics for MMD using SELDI technology. These biomarker candidates have the potential to shed light on the underlying pathogenesis of MMD.</p

    Optimum take-off angle in the standing long jump

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    The aim of this study was to identify and explain the optimum projection angle that maximises the distance achieved in a standing long jump. Five physically active males performed maximum-effort jumps over a wide range of take-off angles, and the jumps were recorded and analysed using a 2-D video analysis procedure. The total jump distance achieved was considered as the sum of three component distances (take-off, flight, and landing), and the dependence of each component distance on the take-off angle was systematically investigated. The flight distance was strongly affected by a decrease in the jumper’s take-off speed with increasing take-off angle, and the take-off distance and landing distance steadily decreased with increasing take-off angle due to changes in the jumper’s body configuration. The optimum take-off angle for the jumper was the angle at which the three component distances combined to produce the greatest jump distance. Although the calculated optimum take-off angles (19–27º) were lower than the jumpers’ preferred take-off angles (31–39º), the loss in jump distance through using a sub-optimum take-off angle was relatively small
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