121 research outputs found

    Neuronal surface antigen-specific immunostaining pattern on a rat brain immunohistochemistry in autoimmune encephalitis

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    A variety of neuronal surface (NS) antibodies (NS-Ab) have been identified in autoimmune encephalitis (AE). Tissue-based assay (TBA) using a rodent brain immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used to screen NS-Ab, while cell-based assay (CBA) to determine NS antigens. Commercial rat brain IHC is currently available but its clinical relevance remains unclear. Immunostaining patterns of NS antigens have not been extensively studied yet. To address these issues, we assessed a predictive value of “neuropil pattern” and “GFAP pattern” on commercial IHC in 261 patients, and characterized an immunostaining pattern of 7 NS antigens (NMDAR, LGI1, GABAaR, GABAbR, AMPAR, Caspr2, GluK2). Sensitivity and specificity of “neuropil pattern” for predicting NS-Ab were 66.0% (95% CI 55.7-75.3), and 98.2% (95% CI 94.8-99.6), respectively. False-positive rate was 1.8% (3/164) while false-negative rate was 34.0% (33/97). In all 3 false-positive patients, neuropil-like staining was attributed to high titers of GAD65-Ab. In 33 false-negative patients, NMDAR was most frequently identified (n=18 [54.5%], 16/18 [88.9%] had low titers [< 1:32]), followed by GABAaR (n=5). Of 261 patients, 25 (9.6%) had either GFAP (n=21) or GFAP-mimicking pattern (n=4). GFAP-Ab were identified in 21 of 31 patients examined with CBA (20 with GFAP pattern, 1 with GFAP-mimicking pattern). Immunostaining pattern of each NS antigen was as follows: 1) NMDAR revealed homogenous reactivity in the dentate gyrus molecular layer (DG-ML) with less intense dot-like reactivity in the cerebellar granular layer (CB-GL); 2) both GABAaR and GluK2 revealed intense dot-like reactivity in the CB-GL, but GABAaR revealed homogenous reactivity in the DG-ML while GluK2 revealed intense reactivity along the inner layer of the DG-ML; and 3) LGI1, Caspr2, GABAbR, and AMPAR revealed intense reactivity in the cerebellar ML (CB-ML) but LGI1 revealed intense reactivity along the middle layer of the DG-ML. Whereas, Caspr2, GABAbR, and AMPAR revealed similar reactivity in the DG-ML but some difference in other regions. TBA is useful not only for screening NS- or GFAP-Ab but also for estimating NS antigens; however, negative results should be interpreted cautiously because “neuropil pattern” may be missed on commercial IHC when antibody titers are low. Antigen-specific immunoreactivity is a useful biomarker of AE

    Development of AI-driven prediction models to realize real-time tumor tracking during radiotherapy

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    [Background] In infrared reflective (IR) marker-based hybrid real-time tumor tracking (RTTT), the internal target position is predicted with the positions of IR markers attached on the patient’s body surface using a prediction model. In this work, we developed two artificial intelligence (AI)-driven prediction models to improve RTTT radiotherapy, namely, a convolutional neural network (CNN) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model. The models aim to improve the accuracy in predicting three-dimensional tumor motion. [Methods] From patients whose respiration-induced motion of the tumor, indicated by the fiducial markers, exceeded 8 mm, 1079 logfiles of IR marker-based hybrid RTTT (IR Tracking) with the gimbal-head radiotherapy system were acquired and randomly divided into two datasets. All the included patients were breathing freely with more than four external IR markers. The historical dataset for the CNN model contained 1003 logfiles, while the remaining 76 logfiles complemented the evaluation dataset. The logfiles recorded the external IR marker positions at a frequency of 60 Hz and fiducial markers as surrogates for the detected target positions every 80-640 ms for 20-40 s. For each logfile in the evaluation dataset, the prediction models were trained based on the data in the first three quarters of the recording period. In the last quarter, the performance of the patient-specific prediction models was tested and evaluated. The overall performance of the AI-driven prediction models was ranked by the percentage of predicted target position within 2 mm of the detected target position. Moreover, the performance of the AI-driven models was compared to a regression prediction model currently implemented in gimbal-head radiotherapy systems. [Results] The percentage of the predicted target position within 2 mm of the detected target position was 95.1%, 92.6% and 85.6% for the CNN, ANFIS, and regression model, respectively. In the evaluation dataset, the CNN, ANFIS, and regression model performed best in 43, 28 and 5 logfiles, respectively. [Conclusions] The proposed AI-driven prediction models outperformed the regression prediction model, and the overall performance of the CNN model was slightly better than that of the ANFIS model on the evaluation dataset

    Association between prostate cancer characteristics and BRCA1/2-associated family cancer history in a Japanese cohort.

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    In addition to breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers, BRCA1/2 genes have been associated with prostate cancer (PC). However, the role of BRCA1/2-associated family cancer history (FCH) has remained unexplored in treating these four cancer types as a homogenous pathophysiological group. We aimed to clarify the relationship between BRCA1/2-associated FCH and PC, and to assess its relationship with cancer aggressiveness. Patient characteristics, positive family history of BRCA1/2-associated cancer, and cancer characteristics (Gleason score, prostate specific antigen level at diagnosis, and clinical tumor stage) were analyzed. Among the 1,985 eligible candidates, 473 (23.83%) patients had adequately detailed FCH, obtained via questionnaire, and were thus included in the study. BRCA1/2-associated FCH was observed in 135 (28.54%) patients with PC (68, 14.38%), breast (44, 9.30%), pancreatic (31, 6.55%), or ovarian (8, 1.69%) cancers. BRCA1/2-associated FCH was not significantly associated with high Gleason score (≥ 8). Patients with BRCA-associated FCH were less likely to present with high clinical tumor stage, and no difference was observed in prostate-specific antigen level, presence of metastatic lesions at diagnosis, or likelihood of high-risk classification between patients with and without BRCA-associated FCH. This is the first report of BRCA1/2-associated FCH in Japanese men, indicating that family history did not affect the severity or aggressiveness of PC

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy to treat small lung lesions clinically diagnosed as primary lung cancer by radiological examination: A prospective observational study

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    Objectives: Even with advanced image guidance, biopsies occasionally fail to diagnose small lung lesions, which are highly suggestive of primary lung cancer by radiological examination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to treat small lung lesions clinically diagnosed as primary lung cancer.Materials and methods: This is a prospective, multi-institutional observation study. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined in a nation-wide consensus meeting and used to include patients who were clinically diagnosed with primary lung cancer using precise imaging modalities, for whom further surgical intervention was not feasible, who refused watchful waiting, and who were highly tolerable of SBRT with informed consent. SBRT was performed with 48 Gy in 4 fractions at the tumor isocenter.Results: From August 2009 to August 2014, 62 patients from 11 institutions were enrolled. Their median age was 80 years. The tumors ranged in size from 9 to 30 mm in diameter (median, 18 mm). The median follow-up interval was 55 months. The 3-year overall survival rate was 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 71.1–90.7%) for all the patients and 94.7% (95% CI 68.1–99.2%) for the patients younger than 75 years. Local failure, regional lymph node metastases and distant metastases occurred in 4 (6.4%), 3 (4.8%) and 11 (17.7%) patients, respectively. Grades 3 and 4 toxicities were observed in 8 (12.9%) patients and 1 (1.6%) patient, respectively. No grade 5 toxicities were observed.Conclusions: SBRT is safe and effective for patients with small lung lesions clinically diagnosed as primary lung cancer that satisfied the proposed strict indication criteria as previously reported. A prospective interventional study is required to ascertain if SBRT is an alternative strategy for these patients

    Involvement of resistin-like molecule β in the development of methionine-choline deficient diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice

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    Resistin-like molecule β (RELMβ) reportedly has multiple functions including local immune responses in the gut. In this study, we investigated the possible contribution of RELMβ to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development. First, RELMβ knock-out (KO) mice were shown to be resistant to methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH development. Since it was newly revealed that Kupffer cells in the liver express RELMβ and that RELMβ expression levels in the colon and the numbers of RELMβ-positive Kupffer cells were both increased in this model, we carried out further experiments using radiation chimeras between wild-type and RELMβ-KO mice to distinguish between the contributions of RELMβ in these two organs. These experiments revealed the requirement of RELMβ in both organs for full manifestation of NASH, while deletion of each one alone attenuated the development of NASH with reduced serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. The higher proportion of lactic acid bacteria in the gut microbiota of RELMβ-KO than in that of wild-type mice may be one of the mechanisms underlying the lower serum LPS level the former. These data suggest the contribution of increases in RELMβ in the gut and Kupffer cells to NASH development, raising the possibility of RELMβ being a novel therapeutic target for NASH