91 research outputs found

    Variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxidative derivatives in wintertime Beijing, China

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    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can contain a mix of different toxic species derived from a wide variety of sources. This study quantifies the diurnal variation and nocturnal abundance of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 10 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and 9 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) in ambient PM in central Beijing during winter. Target compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-Q-ToF-MS). The total concentration of PAHs varied between 18 and 297 ngm-3 over 3 h daytime filter samples and from 23 to 165 ngm-3 in 15 h night-time samples. The total concentrations of PAHs over 24 h varied between 37 and 180 ngm-3 (mean: 97±43 ngm-3). The total daytime concentrations during high particulate loading conditions for PAHs, OPAHs and NPAHs were 224, 54 and 2.3 ngm-3, respectively. The most abundant PAHs were fluoranthene (33 ngm-3), chrysene (27 ngm-3), pyrene (27 ngm-3), benzo[a]pyrene (27 ngm-3), benzo[b]fluoranthene (25 ngm-3), benzo[a]anthracene (20 ngm-3) and phenanthrene (18 ngm-3). The most abundant OPAHs were 9,10-anthraquinone (18 ngm-3), 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (14 ngm-3) and 9-fluorenone (12 ngm-3), and the three most abundant NPAHs were 9-nitroanthracene (0.84 ngm-3), 3-nitrofluoranthene (0.78 ngm-3) and 3-nitrodibenzofuran (0.45 ngm-3). Σ PAHs and Σ OPAHs showed a strong positive correlation with the gas-phase abundance of NO, CO, SO2 and HONO, indicating that PAHs and OPAHs can be associated with both local and regional emissions. Diagnostic ratios suggested emissions from traffic road and coal combustion were the predominant sources of PAHs in Beijing and also revealed the main source of NPAHs to be secondary photochemical formation rather than primary emissions. PM2.5 and NPAHs showed a strong correlation with gas-phase HONO. 9- Nitroanthracene appeared to undergo a photodegradation during the daytime and showed a strong positive correlation with ambient HONO (R D 0:90, P <0:001). The lifetime excess lung cancer risk for those species that have available toxicological data (16 PAHs, 1 OPAH and 6 NPAHs) was calculated to be in the range 10-5 to 10-3 (risk per million people ranges from 26 to 2053 cases per year)

    Influence of the Sea Surface Microlayer on Oceanic Iodine Emissions

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    The influence of organic compounds on iodine (I2) emissions from the O3 + I- reaction at the sea surface was investigated in laboratory and modeling studies using artificial solutions, natural subsurface seawater (SSW), and, for the first time, samples of the surface microlayer (SML). Gas-phase I2 was measured directly above the surface of liquid samples using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. I2 emissions were consistently lower for artificial seawater (AS) than buffered potassium iodide (KI) solutions. Natural seawater samples showed the strongest reduction of I2 emissions compared to artificial solutions with equivalent [I-], and the reduction was more pronounced over SML than SSW. Emissions of volatile organic iodine (VOI) were highest from SML samples but remained a negligible fraction (<1%) of the total iodine flux. Therefore, reduced iodine emissions from natural seawater cannot be explained by chemical losses of I2 or hypoiodous acid (HOI), leading to VOI. An interfacial model explains this reduction by increased solubility of the I2 product in the organic-rich interfacial layer of seawater. Our results highlight the importance of using environmentally representative concentrations in studies of the O3 + I- reaction and demonstrate the influence the SML exerts on emissions of iodine and potentially other volatile species

    Emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from domestic fuels used in Delhi, India

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    Biomass burning emits significant quantities of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) in a complex mixture, probably containing many thousands of chemical species. These components are significantly more toxic and have poorly understood chemistry compared to volatile organic compounds routinely quantified in ambient air; however, analysis of I/SVOCs presents a difficult analytical challenge. The gases and particles emitted during the test combustion of a range of domestic solid fuels collected from across Delhi were sampled and analysed. Organic aerosol was collected onto Teflon (PTFE) filters, and residual low-volatility gases were adsorbed to the surface of solid-phase extraction (SPE) discs. A new method relying on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS) was developed. This highly sensitive and powerful analytical technique enabled over 3000 peaks from I/SVOC species with unique mass spectra to be detected. A total of 15 %-100% of gas-phase emissions and 7 %-100% of particle-phase emissions were characterised. The method was analysed for suitability to make quantitative measurements of I/SVOCs using SPE discs. Analysis of SPE discs indicated phenolic and furanic compounds were important for gas-phase I/SVOC emissions and levoglucosan to the aerosol phase. Gas- and particle-phase emission factors for 21 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were derived, including 16 compounds listed by the US EPA as priority pollutants. Gas-phase emissions were dominated by smaller PAHs. The new emission factors were measured (mg kg-1) for PAHs from combustion of cow dung cake (615), municipal solid waste (1022), crop residue (747), sawdust (1236), fuelwood (247), charcoal (151) and liquefied petroleum gas (56). The results of this study indicate that cow dung cake and municipal solid waste burning are likely to be significant PAH sources, and further study is required to quantify their impact alongside emissions from fuelwood burning

    Research approvals iceberg: how a 'low-key' study in England needed 89 professionals to approve it and how we can do better.

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    BACKGROUND: The red tape and delays around research ethics and governance approvals frequently frustrate researchers yet, as the lesser of two evils, are largely accepted as unavoidable. Here we quantify aspects of the research ethics and governance approvals for one interview- and questionnaire-based study conducted in England which used the National Health Service (NHS) procedures and the electronic Integrated Research Application System (IRAS). We demonstrate the enormous impact of existing approvals processes on costs of studies, including opportunity costs to focus on the substantive research, and suggest directions for radical system change. MAIN TEXT: We have recorded 491 exchanges with 89 individuals involved in research ethics and governance approvals, generating 193 pages of email text excluding attachments. These are conservative estimates (e.g. only records of the research associate were used). The exchanges were conducted outside IRAS, expected to be the platform where all necessary documents are provided and questions addressed. Importantly, the figures exclude the actual work of preparing the ethics documentation (such as the ethics application, information sheets and consent forms). We propose six areas of work to enable system change: 1. Support the development of a broad range of customised research ethics and governance templates to complement generic, typically clinical trials orientated, ones; 2. Develop more sophisticated and flexible frameworks for study classification; 3. Link with associated processes for assessment, feedback, monitoring and reporting, such as ones involving funders and patient and public involvement groups; 4. Invest in a new generation IT infrastructure; 5. Enhance system capacity through increasing online reviewer participation and training; and 6. Encourage researchers to quantify the approvals processes for their studies. CONCLUSION: Ethics and governance approvals are burdensome for historical reasons and not because of the nature of the task. There are many opportunities to improve their efficiency and analytic depth in an age of innovation, increased connectivity and distributed working. If we continue to work under current systems, we are perpetuating, paradoxically, an unethical system of research approvals by virtue of its wastefulness and impoverished ethical debate

    Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH) – a community perspective

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    This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through on-line media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focussed on process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come

    Accelerated surgery versus standard care in hip fracture (HIP ATTACK): an international, randomised, controlled trial

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    Research and Design of a Routing Protocol in Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

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    无线传感器网络,作为全球未来十大技术之一,集成了传感器技术、嵌入式计算技术、分布式信息处理和自组织网技术,可实时感知、采集、处理、传输网络分布区域内的各种信息数据,在军事国防、生物医疗、环境监测、抢险救灾、防恐反恐、危险区域远程控制等领域具有十分广阔的应用前景。 本文研究分析了无线传感器网络的已有路由协议,并针对大规模的无线传感器网络设计了一种树状路由协议,它根据节点地址信息来形成路由,从而简化了复杂繁冗的路由表查找和维护,节省了不必要的开销,提高了路由效率,实现了快速有效的数据传输。 为支持此路由协议本文提出了一种自适应动态地址分配算——ADAR(AdaptiveDynamicAddre...As one of the ten high technologies in the future, wireless sensor network, which is the integration of micro-sensors, embedded computing, modern network and Ad Hoc technologies, can apperceive, collect, process and transmit various information data within the region. It can be used in military defense, biomedical, environmental monitoring, disaster relief, counter-terrorism, remote control of haz...学位:工学硕士院系专业:信息科学与技术学院通信工程系_通信与信息系统学号:2332007115216

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19

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    IMPORTANCE Overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) initiation improves outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In an ongoing, adaptive platform randomized clinical trial, 721 critically ill and 58 non–critically ill hospitalized adults were randomized to receive an RAS inhibitor or control between March 16, 2021, and February 25, 2022, at 69 sites in 7 countries (final follow-up on June 1, 2022). INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive open-label initiation of an ACE inhibitor (n = 257), ARB (n = 248), ARB in combination with DMX-200 (a chemokine receptor-2 inhibitor; n = 10), or no RAS inhibitor (control; n = 264) for up to 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was organ support–free days, a composite of hospital survival and days alive without cardiovascular or respiratory organ support through 21 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. Odds ratios (ORs) greater than 1 represent improved outcomes. RESULTS On February 25, 2022, enrollment was discontinued due to safety concerns. Among 679 critically ill patients with available primary outcome data, the median age was 56 years and 239 participants (35.2%) were women. Median (IQR) organ support–free days among critically ill patients was 10 (–1 to 16) in the ACE inhibitor group (n = 231), 8 (–1 to 17) in the ARB group (n = 217), and 12 (0 to 17) in the control group (n = 231) (median adjusted odds ratios of 0.77 [95% bayesian credible interval, 0.58-1.06] for improvement for ACE inhibitor and 0.76 [95% credible interval, 0.56-1.05] for ARB compared with control). The posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitors and ARBs worsened organ support–free days compared with control were 94.9% and 95.4%, respectively. Hospital survival occurred in 166 of 231 critically ill participants (71.9%) in the ACE inhibitor group, 152 of 217 (70.0%) in the ARB group, and 182 of 231 (78.8%) in the control group (posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitor and ARB worsened hospital survival compared with control were 95.3% and 98.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, among critically ill adults with COVID-19, initiation of an ACE inhibitor or ARB did not improve, and likely worsened, clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0273570
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