11 research outputs found

    L’apprentissage de la langue écrite

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    Comment les enfants apprennent-ils à lire et à écrire ? D’où proviennent les difficultés observées ? Comment les prévenir ou les enrayer ? Ces questions passionnantes et d’actualité sur le plan de la politique nationale et européenne se sont rapidement muées en sujet de polémiques. Leur mise en avant médiatique a pu laisser penser qu’il existait des ruptures au sein de la communauté scientifique. Un colloque intitulé « Approche cognitive de l’apprentissage de la langue écrite » (Rennes, octobre 2006) avait pourtant permis de montrer une cohésion et une collaboration fécondes entre les nombreux chercheurs français et étrangers qui y participaient. Suite à ce constat, nous souhaitions présenter les avancées récentes de la communauté scientifique internationale dans le domaine de l’apprentissage des procédures de lecture (de l’identification des mots à la compréhension des textes écrits) et de productions des mots écrits (du geste graphique au code orthographique). À travers cette collaboration, le lecteur découvrira que ces avancées s’articulent autour de deux grands axes de recherche qui organisent la structure de l’ouvrage : d’une part, la nature des unités linguistiques prises en compte à l’écrit et d’autre part, les traitements impliqués dans l’installation des procédures de lecture-écriture

    Early contribution of phonological awareness and later influence of phonological memory throughout reading acquisition

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    [Q1 Psychology (miscellaneous)] Pour cet article il faut mentionner sur la première page ""This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Nithart, C., Demont, E., Metz-Lutz, M.-N., Majerus, S., Poncelet, M. and Leybaert, J. (2011), Early contribution of phonological awareness and later influence of phonological memory throughout reading acquisition. Journal of Research in Reading, 34: 346–363, which has been published in final form at doi:10.1111/j.1467-9817.2009.01427.x. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archivin

    A theoretically motivated approach of receptive language assessment based on an interactive spreading activation account of language processing

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    In French language, existing tests do not provide a sensitive assessment of auditory comprehension impairments in aphasic patients. These tests don’t detect slight deficits because their a limited number of tasks and items. Our aim was to construct a series of more sensible tasks to assess auditory perception. Our battery consists on of phonological, lexical, semantic and verbal short-term memory tasks with a high number of items for each test. The computerization of tasks allows to measure correct answers and time latency and allows a standardized assessment. Our poster will focus on our assessment tasks of auditory comprehension, performances pattern of our aphasic patient and underlying theoretical models

    Phonological impairment as a decay-based impairment : New evidence from a single case study

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    Computational models of language processing such as the Martin and Saffran (1992) model assume two properties underlying language processing: decay rate of activated representations and strength of activation spread between phonological, lexical and semantic levels of representation. Despite the theoretical and epistemological advantages of these models, as opposed to box-and-arrow type models, empirical evidence for these models is currently based on a very limited number of case studies (e.g., patient NC, Martin & Saffran, 1992; patient CO, Majerus et al., 2001). We present here a new single case study providing further support for the existence of decay rate impairments as an underlying cause of language impairment

    4-Benzyl and 4-benzoyl-3-dimethylaminopyridin-2(1H)-ones: in vitro evaluation of new C-3-amino-substituted and C-5,6-alkyl-substituted analogues against clinically important HIV mutant strains

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    In a program to optimize the anti-HIV activity of the 4-benzyl and 4-benzoyl-3-dimethylaminopyridinones 9 and 10, lead compounds in a new class of highly potent non-nucleoside type inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, modification of the alkyl substitutents at the C-5 and C-6 positions on the pyridinone ring and of the substitutents on the C-3 amino group has been studied. Of the 17 new 5/6-modified analogues prepared, compounds 31b and 32b substituted at C-5 by an extended nonpolar chain containing an ether function and a C-6 methyl group and compound 35 bearing a C-5 ethyl/C-6 hydroxymethyl substituent pattern were selected on the basis of their in vitro activity against wild-type HIV and the three principle mutant strains, K103N, Y181C, and Y188L. When tested further, it was shown that these molecules, and in particular compound 35, are globally more active than 9, 10, and efavirenz against an additional eight single [L100I, K101E, V106A, E138K, V179E, G190A/S, and F227C] and four double HIV mutant strains [L100I + K103N, K101E + K103N, K103N + Y181C, and F227L + V106A], which are clinically relevant. Concerning modulation of the N-3 substituent, 36 new analogues were prepared. Of these, the N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-substituted compounds 40, 42, and 62, as well as the doubly modified compounds 77a and 77b, were selected from the initial screen and were subsequently shown to be active at sub-micromolar concentrations (IC(50)'s) against all the other mutant strains except K103N + Y181C and F227L + V106A. Two possible, but distinct, modes of binding of these analogues in RT were suggested from molecular modeling studies. The preferred mode of binding for compound 62, corresponding to the predicted "orientation 1", was revealed in the X-ray crystal structure of the compound 62-RT complex.status: publishe

    Can phonological and semantic short-term memory be dissociated ? Further evidence from Landau-Kleffner syndrome

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    Recent studies have made a distinction between short-term storage capacities for phonological information and short-term storage capacities for lexico-semantic information (R. Martin, Lesch

    RAPID COMMUNICATION Selective inhibition of sucrose and ethanol intake by SR 141716, an antagonist of central cannabinoid (CB1) receptors

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    Abstract SR 141716, a selective central CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, markedly and selectively reduces sucrose feeding and drinking as well as neuropeptide Y-induced sucrose drinking in rats. SR 141716 also decreases ethanol consumption in C57BL / 6 mice. In contrast, blockade of CB1 receptors only marginally a¤ects regular chow intake or water drinking. The active doses of SR 141716 (0.33 mg / kg) are in the range known to antagonize the characteristic e¤ects induced by cannabinoid receptor agonists. These results suggest for the Þrst time that endogenous cannabinoid systems may modulate the appetitive value of sucrose and ethanol, perhaps by a¤ecting the activity of brain reward systems
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