433 research outputs found

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the blue skate Dipturus batis

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    Acknowledgements: We thank Michelle Frost for genetic identification of the species, and Irina Smolina and Joanna Babiak for assistance in the lab. Funding: This work was supported by Nord University.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Proteomic and transcriptomic patterns during lipid remodeling in nannochloropsis gaditana

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    Nutrient limited conditions are common in natural phytoplankton communities and are often used to increase the yield of lipids from industrial microalgae cultivations. Here we studied the effects of bioavailable nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deprivation on the proteome and transcriptome of the oleaginous marine microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana. Turbidostat cultures were used to selectively apply either N or P deprivation, controlling for variables including the light intensity. Global (cell-wide) changes in the proteome were measured using Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) and LC-MS/MS, whilst gene transcript expression of the same samples was quantified by Illumina RNA-sequencing. We detected 3423 proteins, where 1543 and 113 proteins showed significant changes in abundance in N and P treatments, respectively. The analysis includes the global correlation between proteomic and transcriptomic data, the regulation of subcellular proteomes in different compartments, gene/protein functional groups, and metabolic pathways. The results show that triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation under nitrogen deprivation was associated with substantial downregulation of protein synthesis and photosynthetic activity. Oil accumulation was also accompanied by a diverse set of responses including the upregulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lipase, and lipid body associated proteins. Deprivation of phosphorus had comparatively fewer, weaker effects, some of which were linked to the remodeling of respiratory metabolism.acceptedVersio

    Circulating small non-coding RNAs provide new insights into vitamin K nutrition and reproductive physiology in teleost fish

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    Background: Vitamin K (VK) is a fat-soluble vitamin known for its essential role in blood coagulation, but also on other biological processes (e.g. reproduction, brain and bone development) have been recently suggested. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms behind its particular function on reproduction are not yet fully understood. Methods: The potential role of VK on reproduction through nutritional supplementation in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) was assessed by gonadal maturation and 11-ketosterone, testosterone and estriol plasma levels when fed with control or VK supplemented (1250 mg kg(-1) of VK,) diets along a six month trial. At the end, sperm production and quality (viability and DNA fragmentation) were evaluated. Circulating small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) in blood plasma from males were also studied through RNA-Seq. Results: Fish fed with dietary VK supplementation had increased testosterone levels and lower sperm DNA fragmentation. SncRNAs from blood plasma were found differentially expressed when nutritional and sperm quality conditions were compared. PiR-675//676//4794//5462 and piR-74614 were found up-regulated in males fed with dietary VK supplementation. Let-7g, let-7e(18nt), let-7a-1, let-7a-3//7a-2//7a-1, let-7e(23nt) and piR-675//676//4794//5462 were found to be up-regulated and miR-146a and miR-146a-1//146a-2//146a-3 down-regulated when fish with low and high sperm DNA fragmentation were compared. Bioinformatic analyses of predicted mRNAs targeted by sncRNAs revealed the potential underlying pathways. Conclusions: VK supplementation improves fish gonad maturation and sperm quality, suggesting an unexpected and complex regulation of the nutritional status and reproductive performance through circulating sncRNAs. General significance: The use of circulating sncRNAs as reliable and less-invasive physiological biomarkers in fish nutrition and reproduction has been unveiled.European Regional Development Funds (ERDF) through the Portuguese "Programa Operational" (PROMAR)European Union (EU) [31-03-05-FEP-0073]COST Office (Food and Agriculture COST Action) [FA1205: AQUAGAMETE]network LARVAplus "Estrategias de desarrollo y mejora de la production de larvas de peces en Iberoamerica" - Programa Iberoamericano de Ciencia y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo (CYTED) [117RT0521]CYTED [318RT0549][CCMAR/SC/BPD/09/2016]info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Introduction to Swiss Law

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    What are the origins of direct democracy in Switzerland? How does the Swiss judiciary function? What are the principles of Swiss civil, contract and administrative law? What is the role of public service broadcasting in the political decision-making process? What are the leading cases in tax law? What forms of euthanasia are legal in Switzerland? In this introduction 19 legal scholars of the University of Zurich Law Faculty try to answer these questions and give the reader an overview of Swiss public, private, and criminal law. As the first comprehensive introduction to Swiss law in English, it is addressed to both lawyers from abroad and incoming students to the University of Zurich

    Observer and relocation errors matter in resurveys of historical vegetation plots

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    Aim: Revisits of non-permanent, relocatable plots first surveyed several decades ago offer a direct way to observe vegetation change and form a unique and increasingly used source of information for global change research. Despite the important insights that can be obtained from resurveying these quasi-permanent vegetation plots, their use is prone to both observer and relocation errors. Studying the combined effects of both error types is important since they will play out together in practice and it is yet unknown to what extent observed vegetation changes are influenced by these errors. Methods: We designed a study that mimicked all steps in a resurvey study and that allowed determination of the magnitude of observer errors only vs the joint observer and relocation errors. Communities of vascular plants growing in the understorey of temperate forests were selected as study system. Ten regions in Europe were covered to explore generality across contexts and 50 observers were involved, which deliberately differed in their experience in making vegetation records. Results: The mean geographic distance between plots in the observer+relocation error data set was 24m. The mean relative difference in species richness in the observer error and the observer+relocation data set was 15% and 21%, respectively. The mean pseudo-turnover between the five records at a quasi-permanent plot location was on average 0.21 and 0.35 for the observer error and observer+relocation error data sets, respectively. More detailed analyses of the compositional variation showed that the nestedness and turnover components were of equal importance in the observer data set, whereas turnover was much more important than nestedness in the observer+relocation data set. Interestingly, the differences between the observer and the observer+relocation data sets largely disappeared when looking at temporal change: both the changes in species richness and species composition over time were very similar in these data sets. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that observer and relocation errors are non-negligible when resurveying quasi-permanent plots. A careful interpretation of the results of resurvey studies is warranted, especially when changes are assessed based on a low number of plots. We conclude by listing measures that should be taken to maximally increase the precision and the strength of the inferences drawn from vegetation resurveys