251 research outputs found

    Developing expert scientific consensus on the environmental and societal effects of marine artificial structures prior to decommissioning

    No full text
    Thousands of artificial (‚Äėhuman-made‚Äô) structures are present in the marine environment, many at or approaching end-of-life and requiring urgent decisions regarding their decommissioning. No consensus has been reached on which decommissioning option(s) result in optimal environmental and societal outcomes, in part, owing to a paucity of evidence from real-world decommissioning case studies. To address this significant challenge, we asked a worldwide panel of scientists to provide their expert opinion. They were asked to identify and characterise the ecosystem effects of artificial structures in the sea, their causes and consequences, and to identify which, if any, should be retained following decommissioning. Experts considered that most of the pressures driving ecological and societal effects from marine artificial structures (MAS) were of medium severity, occur frequently, and are dependent on spatial scale with local-scale effects of greater magnitude than regional effects. The duration of many effects following decommissioning were considered to be relatively short, in the order of days. Overall, environmental effects of structures were considered marginally undesirable, while societal effects marginally desirable. Experts therefore indicated that any decision to leave MAS in place at end-of-life to be more beneficial to society than the natural environment. However, some individual environmental effects were considered desirable and worthy of retention, especially in certain geographic locations, where structures can support improved trophic linkages, increases in tourism, habitat provision, and population size, and provide stability in population dynamics. The expert analysis consensus that the effects of MAS are both negative and positive for the environment and society, gives no strong support for policy change whether removal or retention is favoured until further empirical evidence is available to justify change to the status quo. The combination of desirable and undesirable effects associated with MAS present a significant challenge for policy- and decision-makers in their justification to implement decommissioning options. Decisions may need to be decided on a case-by-case basis accounting for the trade-off in costs and benefits at a local level

    Developing expert scientific consensus on the environmental and societal effects of marine artificial structures prior to decommissioning

    Get PDF
    Thousands of artificial (‚Äėhuman-made‚Äô) structures are present in the marine environment, many at or approaching end-of-life and requiring urgent decisions regarding their decommissioning. No consensus has been reached on which decommissioning option(s) result in optimal environmental and societal outcomes, in part, owing to a paucity of evidence from real-world decommissioning case studies. To address this significant challenge, we asked a worldwide panel of scientists to provide their expert opinion. They were asked to identify and characterise the ecosystem effects of artificial structures in the sea, their causes and consequences, and to identify which, if any, should be retained following decommissioning. Experts considered that most of the pressures driving ecological and societal effects from marine artificial structures (MAS) were of medium severity, occur frequently, and are dependent on spatial scale with local-scale effects of greater magnitude than regional effects. The duration of many effects following decommissioning were considered to be relatively short, in the order of days. Overall, environmental effects of structures were considered marginally undesirable, while societal effects marginally desirable. Experts therefore indicated that any decision to leave MAS in place at end-of-life to be more beneficial to society than the natural environment. However, some individual environmental effects were considered desirable and worthy of retention, especially in certain geographic locations, where structures can support improved trophic linkages, increases in tourism, habitat provision, and population size, and provide stability in population dynamics. The expert analysis consensus that the effects of MAS are both negative and positive for the environment and society, gives no strong support for policy change whether removal or retention is favoured until further empirical evidence is available to justify change to the status quo. The combination of desirable and undesirable effects associated with MAS present a significant challenge for policy- and decision-makers in their justification to implement decommissioning options. Decisions may need to be decided on a case-by-case basis accounting for the trade-off in costs and benefits at a local level

    Durability of Immune Responses After Boosting in Ad26.COV2.S-Primed Healthcare Workers

    No full text
    The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants raised questions regarding the durability of immune responses after homologous or heterologous boosters after Ad26.COV2.S-priming. We found that SARS-CoV-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T cells are detectable 5 months after boosting, although waning of antibodies and limited cross-reactivity with Omicron BA.1 was observed

    Investigation of hospital discharge cases and SARS-CoV-2 introduction into Lothian care homes

    Get PDF
    Background The first epidemic wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Scotland resulted in high case numbers and mortality in care homes. In Lothian, over one-third of care homes reported an outbreak, while there was limited testing of hospital patients discharged to care homes. Aim To investigate patients discharged from hospitals as a source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction into care homes during the first epidemic wave. Methods A clinical review was performed for all patients discharges from hospitals to care homes from 1st March 2020 to 31st May 2020. Episodes were ruled out based on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) test history, clinical assessment at discharge, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data and an infectious period of 14 days. Clinical samples were processed for WGS, and consensus genomes generated were used for analysis using Cluster Investigation and Virus Epidemiological Tool software. Patient timelines were obtained using electronic hospital records. Findings In total, 787 patients discharged from hospitals to care homes were identified. Of these, 776 (99%) were ruled out for subsequent introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into care homes. However, for 10 episodes, the results were inconclusive as there was low genomic diversity in consensus genomes or no sequencing data were available. Only one discharge episode had a genomic, time and location link to positive cases during hospital admission, leading to 10 positive cases in their care home. Conclusion The majority of patients discharged from hospitals were ruled out for introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into care homes, highlighting the importance of screening all new admissions when faced with a novel emerging virus and no available vaccine

    Durability of immune responses after boosting in Ad26.COV2.S-primed healthcare workers

    No full text
    The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants raised questions regarding the durability of immune responses after homologous or heterologous booster vaccination after Ad26.COV2.S priming. We found that SARS-CoV-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and T-cells are detectable 5 months after boosting, although waning of antibodies and limited cross-reactivity with Omicron BA.1 was observed

    Incident type 2 diabetes attributable to suboptimal diet in 184 countries

    Get PDF
    The global burden of diet-attributable type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not well established. This risk assessment model estimated T2D incidence among adults attributable to direct and body weight-mediated effects of 11 dietary factors in 184 countries in 1990 and 2018. In 2018, suboptimal intake of these dietary factors was estimated to be attributable to 14.1 million (95% uncertainty interval (UI), 13.8‚Äď14.4 million) incident T2D cases, representing 70.3% (68.8‚Äď71.8%) of new cases globally. Largest T2D burdens were attributable to insufficient whole-grain intake (26.1% (25.0‚Äď27.1%)), excess refined rice and wheat intake (24.6% (22.3‚Äď27.2%)) and excess processed meat intake (20.3% (18.3‚Äď23.5%)). Across regions, highest proportional burdens were in central and eastern Europe and central Asia (85.6% (83.4‚Äď87.7%)) and Latin America and the Caribbean (81.8% (80.1‚Äď83.4%)); and lowest proportional burdens were in South Asia (55.4% (52.1‚Äď60.7%)). Proportions of diet-attributable T2D were generally larger in men than in women and were inversely correlated with age. Diet-attributable T2D was generally larger among urban versus rural residents and higher versus lower educated individuals, except in high-income countries, central and eastern Europe and central Asia, where burdens were larger in rural residents and in lower educated individuals. Compared with 1990, global diet-attributable T2D increased by 2.6 absolute percentage points (8.6 million more cases) in 2018, with variation in these trends by world region and dietary factor. These findings inform nutritional priorities and clinical and public health planning to improve dietary quality and reduce T2D globally.publishedVersio

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19

    Get PDF
    IMPORTANCE Overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) initiation improves outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In an ongoing, adaptive platform randomized clinical trial, 721 critically ill and 58 non‚Äďcritically ill hospitalized adults were randomized to receive an RAS inhibitor or control between March 16, 2021, and February 25, 2022, at 69 sites in 7 countries (final follow-up on June 1, 2022). INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive open-label initiation of an ACE inhibitor (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ257), ARB (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ248), ARB in combination with DMX-200 (a chemokine receptor-2 inhibitor; n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ10), or no RAS inhibitor (control; n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ264) for up to 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was organ support‚Äďfree days, a composite of hospital survival and days alive without cardiovascular or respiratory organ support through 21 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. Odds ratios (ORs) greater than 1 represent improved outcomes. RESULTS On February 25, 2022, enrollment was discontinued due to safety concerns. Among 679 critically ill patients with available primary outcome data, the median age was 56 years and 239 participants (35.2%) were women. Median (IQR) organ support‚Äďfree days among critically ill patients was 10 (‚Äď1 to 16) in the ACE inhibitor group (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ231), 8 (‚Äď1 to 17) in the ARB group (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ217), and 12 (0 to 17) in the control group (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ231) (median adjusted odds ratios of 0.77 [95% bayesian credible interval, 0.58-1.06] for improvement for ACE inhibitor and 0.76 [95% credible interval, 0.56-1.05] for ARB compared with control). The posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitors and ARBs worsened organ support‚Äďfree days compared with control were 94.9% and 95.4%, respectively. Hospital survival occurred in 166 of 231 critically ill participants (71.9%) in the ACE inhibitor group, 152 of 217 (70.0%) in the ARB group, and 182 of 231 (78.8%) in the control group (posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitor and ARB worsened hospital survival compared with control were 95.3% and 98.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, among critically ill adults with COVID-19, initiation of an ACE inhibitor or ARB did not improve, and likely worsened, clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0273570

    Low Pretreatment CD4<sup>+</sup>:CD8<sup>+</sup> T Cell Ratios and CD39<sup>+</sup>CD73<sup>+</sup>CD19<sup>+</sup> B Cell Proportions Are Associated with Improved Relapse-Free Survival in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    No full text
    The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 are present on immune cells and play important roles in cancer progression by suppressing antitumour immunity. As such, CD39 and CD73 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are emerging as potential biomarkers to predict disease outcomes and treatment responses in cancer patients. This study aimed to examine T and B cells, including CD39 and CD73 expressing subsets, by flow cytometry in PBMCs from 28 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to assess the correlation with the treatment modality, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, and relapse-free survival (RFS). The PBMCs were examined pre-, mid-, and post-radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy or anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody (cetuximab) therapy. Combination radiotherapy caused changes to T and B cell populations, including CD39 and CD73 expressing subsets, but no such differences were observed between concurrent chemotherapy and cetuximab. Pretreatment PBMCs from HPV+ patients contained increased proportions of CD39‚ąíCD73‚ąíCD4+ T cells and reduced proportions of CD39‚ąí/+CD73+CD4+ T cells compared to the equivalent cells from HPV‚ąí patients. Notably, the pretreatment CD4+:CD8+ T cell ratios and CD39+CD73+CD19+ B cell proportions below the respective cohort medians corresponded with an improved RFS. Collectively, this study supports the notion that CD39 and CD73 may contribute to disease outcomes in HNSCC patients and may assist as biomarkers, either alone or as part of immune signatures, in HNSCC. Further studies of CD39 and CD73 on PBMCs from larger cohorts of HNSCC patients are warranted

    Children‚Äôs and adolescents‚Äô rising animal-source food intakes in 1990‚Äď2018 were impacted by age, region, parental education and urbanicity

    Get PDF
    Animal-source foods (ASF) provide nutrition for children and adolescents‚Äô physical and cognitive development. Here, we use data from the Global Dietary Database and Bayesian hierarchical models to quantify global, regional and national ASF intakes between 1990 and 2018 by age group across 185 countries, representing 93% of the world‚Äôs child population. Mean ASF intake was 1.9 servings per day, representing 16% of children consuming at least three daily servings. Intake was similar between boys and girls, but higher among urban children with educated parents. Consumption varied by age from 0.6 at <1 year to 2.5 servings per day at 15‚Äď19 years. Between 1990 and 2018, mean ASF intake increased by 0.5 servings per week, with increases in all regions except sub-Saharan Africa. In 2018, total ASF consumption was highest in Russia, Brazil, Mexico and Turkey, and lowest in Uganda, India, Kenya and Bangladesh. These findings can inform policy to address malnutrition through targeted ASF consumption programmes.publishedVersio

    Complement lectin pathway activation is associated with COVID-19 disease severity, independent of MBL2 genotype subgroups