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    The next generation virus-like particle platform for the treatment of peanut allergy.

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    BACKGROUND Allergy to peanut is one of the leading causes of anaphylactic reactions among food allergic patients. Immunization against peanut allergy with a safe and protective vaccine holds a promise to induce durable protection against anaphylaxis caused by exposure to peanut. A novel vaccine candidate (VLP Peanut), based on virus-like particles (VLPs), is described here for the treatment of peanut allergy. METHODS AND RESULTS VLP Peanut consist of two proteins: a capsid subunit derived from Cucumber mosaic virus engineered with a universal T cell epitope (CuMVTT ) and a CuMVTT subunit fused with peanut allergen Ara h 2 (CuMVTT -Ara h 2), forming mosaic VLPs. Immunizations with VLP Peanut in both naïve and peanut-sensitised mice resulted in a significant anti-Ara h 2 IgG response. Local and systemic protection induced by VLP Peanut were established in mouse models for peanut allergy following prophylactic, therapeutic and passive immunizations. Inhibition of FcγRIIb function resulted in a loss of protection, confirming the crucial role of the receptor in conferring cross protection against peanut allergens other than Ara h 2. CONCLUSION VLP Peanut can be delivered to peanut-sensitized mice without triggering allergic reactions, whilst remaining highly immunogenic and offering protection against all peanut allergens. In addition, vaccination ablates allergic symptoms upon allergen challenge. Moreover, the prophylactic immunization setting conferred the protection against subsequent peanut-induced anaphylaxis, showing the potential for preventive vaccination. This highlights the effectiveness of VLP Peanut as a prospective break-through immunotherapy vaccine candidate towards peanut allergy. VLP Peanut has now entered clinical development with the study PROTECT

    Observation of four top quark production in proton-proton collisions at √s = 13 TeV

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    Measurement of the primary Lund jet plane density in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV