4,309 research outputs found

    Collisional Formation and Modeling of Asteroid Families

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    In the last decade, thanks to the development of sophisticated numerical codes, major breakthroughs have been achieved in our understanding of the formation of asteroid families by catastrophic disruption of large parent bodies. In this review, we describe numerical simulations of asteroid collisions that reproduced the main properties of families, accounting for both the fragmentation of an asteroid at the time of impact and the subsequent gravitational interactions of the generated fragments. The simulations demonstrate that the catastrophic disruption of bodies larger than a few hundred meters in diameter leads to the formation of large aggregates due to gravitational reaccumulation of smaller fragments, which helps explain the presence of large members within asteroid families. Thus, for the first time, numerical simulations successfully reproduced the sizes and ejection velocities of members of representative families. Moreover, the simulations provide constraints on the family dynamical histories and on the possible internal structure of family members and their parent bodies.Comment: Chapter to appear in the (University of Arizona Press) Space Science Series Book: Asteroids I

    A Comprehensive Review of the Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Clinical Effects of the Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitor Racecadotril

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    Racecadotril, via its active metabolite thiorphan, is an inhibitor of the enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP, EC, thereby increasing exposure to NEP substrates including enkephalins and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Upon oral administration racecadotril is rapidly and effectively converted into the active metabolite thiorphan, which does not cross the blood–brain-barrier. Racecadotril has mainly been tested in animal models and patients of three therapeutic areas. As an analgesic the effects of racecadotril across animal models were inconsistent. In cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension or congestive heart failure results from animal studies were promising, probably related to increased exposure to ANP, but clinical results have not shown substantial therapeutic benefit over existing treatment options in cardiovascular disease. In contrast, racecadotril was consistently effective in animal models and patients with various forms of acute diarrhea by inhibiting pathologic (but not basal) secretion from the gut without changing gastro-intestinal transit time or motility. This included studies in both adults and children. In direct comparative studies with loperamide in adults and children, racecadotril was at least as effective but exhibited fewer adverse events in most studies, particularly less rebound constipation. Several guidelines recommend the use of racecadotril as addition to oral rehydration treatment in children with acute diarrhea

    Human Urinary Bladder Strip Relaxation by the β-Adrenoceptor Agonist Isoprenaline: Methodological Considerations and Effects of Gender and Age

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    The present study was primarily designed to explore various methodological aspects related to organ bath experiments evaluating human detrusor relaxation by the β-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline. Data are based upon a series of 30 consecutive patients, and this cohort was also used to explore possible effects of gender and age. KCl-induced contraction was related to strip length but not weight or cross-sectional area, indicating that the former is most suitable for data normalization. Storage of detrusor strips in cold buffer for up to 2 days did not affect contractile responses to KCl or efficacy of isoprenaline to cause relaxation but significantly affected the isoprenaline potency. No such alterations were observed with up to 1 day of cold storage. The type (KCl vs. passive tension) or strength of contractile stimulus had only minor effects on isoprenaline responses although these differences reached statistical significance in some cases. Similarly, gender and age had only minor if any effects on KCl-induced contraction or isoprenaline-induced relaxation, but the current data are too limited for robust conclusions. In summary we have evaluated experimental conditions for the testing of human detrusor strip contraction and relaxation which should be useful for future larger studies

    Topographical coloured plasmonic coins

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    The use of metal nanostructures for colourization has attracted a great deal of interest with the recent developments in plasmonics. However, the current top-down colourization methods based on plasmonic concepts are tedious and time consuming, and thus unviable for large-scale industrial applications. Here we show a bottom-up approach where, upon picosecond laser exposure, a full colour palette independent of viewing angle can be created on noble metals. We show that colours are related to a single laser processing parameter, the total accumulated fluence, which makes this process suitable for high throughput industrial applications. Statistical image analyses of the laser irradiated surfaces reveal various distributions of nanoparticle sizes which control colour. Quantitative comparisons between experiments and large-scale finite-difference time-domain computations, demonstrate that colours are produced by selective absorption phenomena in heterogeneous nanoclusters. Plasmonic cluster resonances are thus found to play the key role in colour formation.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figure

    A new combined bodian-luxol technique for staining unmyelinated axons in semithin, resin-embedded peripheral nerves: a comparison with electron microscopy.

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    peer reviewedaudience: researcher, professionalQuantitation of unmyelinated fibers (UF) in peripheral nerves has classically relied upon ultrastructural morphometry. Because this method is time-consuming, it is not typically performed in routine analysis of nerve biopsies. We applied the Bodian-Luxol technique to detect unmyelinated axons by light microscopy on semithin sections from resin-embedded nerve tissue. Estimates were compared to ultrastructural counts. The staining appeared highly specific for axons. Excellent correlation was found between optic densities and the population of UF larger than 0.5 microm. The smallest profiles detected by light microscopy had a diameter close to 0.6 microm. This new technique is not a substitute for ultrastructural quantitative morphometry of UF, as very small unmyelinated axons, especially regenerating ones, can not be reliably visualized. However, it provides a valuable light microscopic method for evaluating axonal loss among UF

    A Utility Framework for COVID-19 Online Forward Triage Tools: A Swiss Telehealth Case Study.

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    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused a surge in online tools commonly known as symptom checkers. The purpose of these symptom checkers was mostly to reduce the health system burden by providing worried people with testing criteria, where to test and how to self-care. Technical, usability and organizational challenges with regard to online forward triage tools have also been reported. Very few of these online forward triage tools have been evaluated. Evidence for decision frameworks may be of particular value in a pandemic setting where time frames are restricted, uncertainties are ubiquitous and the evidence base is changing rapidly. The objective was to develop a framework to evaluate the utility of COVID-19 online forward triage tools. The development of the online forward triage tool utility framework was conducted in three phases. The process was guided by the socio-ecological framework for adherence that states that patient (individual), societal and broader structural factors affect adherence to the tool. In a further step, pragmatic incorporation of themes on the utility of online forward triage tools that emerged from our study as well as from the literature was performed. Seven criteria emerged; tool accessibility, reliability as an information source, medical decision-making aid, allaying fear and anxiety, health system burden reduction, onward forward transmission reduction and systems thinking (usefulness in capacity building, planning and resource allocation, e.g., tests and personal protective equipment). This framework is intended to be a starting point and a generic tool that can be adapted to other online forward triage tools beyond COVID-19. A COVID-19 online forward triage tool meeting all seven criteria can be regarded as fit for purpose. How useful an OFTT is depends on its context and purpose