384 research outputs found

    The birth of yeast peroxisomes

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    This contribution describes the phenotypic differences of yeast peroxisome-deficient mutants (pex mutants). In some cases different phenotypes were reported for yeast mutants deleted in the same PEX gene. These differences are most likely related to the marker proteins and methods used to detect peroxisomal remnants. This is especially evident for pex3 and pex19 mutants, where the localization of receptor docking proteins (Pex13, Pex14) resulted in the identification of peroxisomal membrane remnants, which do not contain other peroxisomal membrane proteins, such as the ring proteins Pex2, Pex10 and Pex12. These structures in pex3 and pex19 cells are the template for peroxisome formation upon introduction of the missing gene. Taken together, these data suggest that in all yeast pex mutants analyzed so far peroxisomes are not formed de novo but use membrane remnant structures as a template for peroxisome formation upon reintroduction of the missing gene. The relevance of this model for peroxisomal membrane protein and lipid sorting to peroxisomes is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes

    Central role of mic10 in the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system

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    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a conserved multi-subunit complex crucial for maintaining the characteristic architecture of mitochondria. Studies with deletion mutants identified Mic10 and Mic60 as core subunits of MICOS. Mic60 has been studied in detail; however, topogenesis and function of Mic10 are unknown. We report that targeting of Mic10 to the mitochondrial inner membrane requires a positively charged internal loop, but no cleavable presequence. Both transmembrane segments of Mic10 carry a characteristic four-glycine motif, which has been found in the ring-forming rotor subunit of F1Fo-ATP synthases. Overexpression of Mic10 profoundly alters the architecture of the inner membrane independently of other MICOS components. The four-glycine motifs are dispensable for interaction of Mic10 with other MICOS subunits but are crucial for the formation of large Mic10 oligomers. Our studies identify a unique role of Mic10 oligomers in promoting the formation of inner membrane crista junctions

    Lipid droplet autophagy in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that play a key role in cellular and organismal lipid homeostasis. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and steryl esters, which are stored in LDs, are typically mobilized in growing cells or upon hormonal stimulation by LD-associated lipases and steryl ester hydrolases. Here we show that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LDs can also be turned over in vacuoles/lysosomes by a process that morphologically resembles microautophagy. A distinct set of proteins involved in LD autophagy is identified, which includes the core autophagic machinery but not Atg11 or Atg20. Thus LD autophagy is distinct from endoplasmic reticulum–autophagy, pexophagy, or mitophagy, despite the close association between these organelles. Atg15 is responsible for TAG breakdown in vacuoles and is required to support growth when de novo fatty acid synthesis is compromised. Furthermore, none of the core autophagy proteins, including Atg1 and Atg8, is required for LD formation in yeast.

    Preperoxisomal vesicles can form in the absence of Pex3

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    We demonstrate that the peroxin Pex3 is not required for the formation of peroxisomal membrane structures in yeast pex3 mutant cells. Notably, pex3 mutant cells already contain reticular and vesicular structures that harbor key proteins of the peroxisomal receptor docking complex—Pex13 and Pex14—as well as the matrix proteins Pex8 and alcohol oxidase. Other peroxisomal membrane proteins in these cells are unstable and transiently localized to the cytosol (Pex10, Pmp47) or endoplasmic reticulum (Pex11). These reticular and vesicular structures are more abundant in cells of a pex3 atg1 double deletion strain, as the absence of Pex3 may render them susceptible to autophagic degradation, which is blocked in this double mutant. Contrary to earlier suggestions, peroxisomes are not formed de novo from the endoplasmic reticulum when the PEX3 gene is reintroduced in pex3 cells. Instead, we find that reintroduced Pex3 sorts to the preperoxisomal structures in pex3 cells, after which these structures mature into normal peroxisomes.

    A critical reflection on the principles of peroxisome formation in yeast

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    We have evaluated the current knowledge on peroxisome proliferation in yeast. In wild-type cells, peroxisomes multiply predominantly by fission at conditions that require peroxisome function(s) for growth. In cells that lack peroxisomes, for instance in pex3 and pex19 mutants or in mutants that display inheritance defects, peroxisomes may form de novo. We propose a novel machinery for the de novo formation of peroxisomes in pex3 cells, in which new peroxisomes do not arise from the endoplasmic reticulum. This machinery is based on the recent observation that membrane vesicles are present in these cells that display peroxisomal characteristics in that they contain specific peroxisomal membrane and matrix proteins. These structures are the target for newly formed peroxisomes upon reintroduction of Pex3. Furthermore, we critically evaluate the principles of sorting of other peroxisomal membrane proteins to their target organelle and the function of the endoplasmic reticulum therein

    De novo peroxisome biogenesis revisited

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    We describe an alternative peroxisome formation pathway in yeast pex3 and pex19 cells, which relies on the existence of small peroxisomal remnants that are present in these cells. This groundbreaking result challenges current models prescribing that peroxisomes derive de novo from the ER. Our data also has major implications for the sorting pathway of specific peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). We propose a novel sorting pathway for the PMPs Pex13 and Pex14 that is independent of the known Pex3/Pex19 machinery

    Improving penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum by glyoxalase overproduction

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    <p>Genetic engineering of fungal cell factories mainly focuses on manipulating enzymes of the product pathway or primary metabolism. However, despite the use of strong promoters or strains containing the genes of interest in multiple copies, the desired strongly enhanced enzyme levels are often not obtained.</p><p>Here we present a novel strategy to improve penicillin biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum by reducing reactive and toxic metabolic by-products, 2-oxoaldehydes. This was achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding glyoxalase I and II, which resulted in a 10% increase in penicillin titers relative to the control strain.</p><p>The protein levels of two key enzymes of penicillin biosynthesis, isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase, were increased in the glyoxalase transformants, whereas their transcript levels remained unaltered. These results suggest that directed intracellular reduction of 2-oxoaldehydes prolongs the functional lifetime of these enzymes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p>
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